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Fernández Marcos, Natalio
Introduccion a las versiones griegas de la Biblia 1981
Kilpatrick, George Dunbar
Theologische Literaturzeitung 106. Jahrgang 1981 Nr. 9
Reichert, Heinrich G.: Urban und Human. Unvergängliche lateinische
Spruchweisheit. 5 Aufl. St. Ottilien: EOS Verlag 1980. 376 S.
81. Pp. DM 9,80.
Schelz, Sepp: Umkehr am Rande des Abgrunds. Eine Rede über
Buch und Glaube an der Epochenschwelle (LM 19, 1980
Busto Saiz, Jose Ramön: La Traducciön de Simaco en el Libro de los
Salmos. 1978. XXVI, 756 S. 4 ptas 2500.
I*ernändez Marcos, N.; A. Saenz-Badillos: Theodoreti Cyrensis
Quaesdones in Octatcuchum. Editio Critica. 1979. LXII, 345 S. 4'
Fernändez Marcos, Natalio: Introducciön a las Versiones Griegas de
la Biblia. 1979. XIII, 349 S. 4" ptas 1500. = Textos y Estudios del
Seminario Fitoliy "Cardenal Cisneros" 22, 27, 28. Madrid:
As part of the revival of Biblical studies in Spain, the last twenty
years havc seen an increasing intercst in the Greek Bible as part of the
Biblia Poliglota Mairiiense of which these three volumes are an
Dr. Fcrnandez Marcos' book deals principally with the LXX.
Chapter I trcats of the linguistic and cultural background of the LXX
and its charactcr asa translation. II isabout the origins ofthe LXX, in
Particular the cvidence of the Letter of Ps-Aristeas, about modern in-
terpretations of the LXX origins, the implications of parallel transla-
tions and the process of targumisation. III "LXX and Jewish tradi-
tion" reports on Aquila, Simachus, Theodotion and Proto-
Theodotion, the other ancient versions Quinta. Sexta, the Hebrew,
the Syrian, the Samaritan, the translator Josephus and various medie-
val and modern Greek Jewish translations. IV "Tne LXX in the
Christian tradition" discusses LXX transmission and textual history,
Origen's Hexapla. the recension of Lucian and Hesychias, other revi-
s'ons, the indirect transmission with the Biblical quotations, ancient
discussions of problems of interpretation and commentaries and,
hnally, the catenac with which recent research has been much con-
cerned. V is devoted to "The LXX and Christian Origins", in particular
to Judaism and Hellcnism and the LXX in relation to the New
The author assumes the treatments ofthe LXX in the Introduction
of Swete and Jellicoe and the references in S. P. Brock, Ch. T. Fritsch
and S. Jellicoe, .4 ClassifiedBibliogrftphyoftheSepiuagini (1971). He
does not aim at an exhaustive introduction to the LXX nor at a mere
cataloguc of informative details, but at a series of up-to-date and
'nstruetive discussions which will put not only the beginner but any
Biblical scholar who wishes to learn more about the LXX au courant
which the subject and its recent study.
Though it was ready for publication about a year carlier than the
I'itrodiuciön. the edition of Theodoret's Quaesliones relates to the
discussions there of the Lucianic text and of the Catenae. The two
editors provide, first, a short note reporting a delay in publication and
giving supplementary information. A general preface explains the
°ackground and purpose of the edition and the importance of the
Quaesliones for the Lucianic text and for the LXX text in general.
The introduction lists the 38 manuscripts collated for the edition and
' 5 more ofthe XVth Century and later which were consulted but not
collated. The work was written about A. D. 450 and the oldest
nianuscript is of the ninth Century. The manuscripts are ascribed to
three classes, A, B, C, none of which can be neglected, though B
seems to have suffered the most changes. Previous editions, all of
which rest on one or two manuscripts, are described. Next comes a
discussion of the LXX text of Antioch. This includes tables forGene-
s's, Deuteronomy and Judges giving corrections to the apparatus of
Jevers and Brooke-McLean, cxclusive readings of Theodoret, and
agreements of Theodoret with Chrysostom and other fathers, and
various groups of LXX manuscripts. The text follows with indexes of
Biblical quotations of ancient authors and of a selection from the vo-
cabulary of the Quaesliones. This edition is to be followed by one of
Theodoret's Quaesliones in Reges el l'aralipomena which will have
at least as much significance for the LX X and the Lucianic text.
Another part of the Bible of great significance for the study ofthe
LXX is the Psalms. In the New Testament we can detect traces of a
form ofthe Psalter which differed markedly from Rahlfs' text as well
as from the Massoretic text (cf. Ac. i. 20, xiii.33 D Orig, xxviii.26-27,
Rom. iii. 10-18, IPet. iii.10-12). Another very ancient text of the
Greek Psalms with similar characteristics lies behind the Psalterium
Romanum and other pre-hieronymian Latin Psalters.
In this connexion the edition ofthe remains of Symmaehus' translation
ofthe Psalms is particularly useful and interesting. Hitherto for
Symmaehus' Psalms we have depended on Field's Hexapla. but now
we havc a fuller and more up-to-date collection. Part I gives details of
the method of translating the Hebrew, but part II is a new edition of
the fragments of Symmaehus' Version, and the core of part III is an
index of the Greek words in these fragments together with their Hebrew
equivalents and a reverse index Hebrew-Greek with a separate
entry for proper names. Part II contains a considerable number of
items which are not in Field's Hexapla and some which are not in
Hatch and Redpath's Concordance (1897, Supplement 1906).
Among these last we must no.te the picecs in A. Schenker, Hexaplari-
sehe Psalmenbruehslüeke, 1975, and the störe of Hexaplaric material
in J. D. Barthelemy's collections at Fribourg. This assembly of the
remains of Symmaehus' Version ofthe Psalms provides much information
about his Hebrew text which seems to be almost identical
with the Massoretic text, but also teils us much about the Greek of his
day and his won language. Instructive, for example, in this connexion
is the comparative table of occurrences of the commoner particles i.i
the LXX, the later translators and Lucian, Plutarch and Galen. It
would have been informative to have a similar table for the optative
in main and subordinate clauses, and the future participle and future
infinitive. Nonethelcss the pieture of Symmaehus' language isclear: it
is the ordinary Greek of the day without literary affectation and it
gives a clear and faithful rendering of the Hebrew.
The book encourages us to examine Field's retroversions into
Greek ofthe wording of dependent versions. For example, did Symmaehus
ever use dvayyekAeiv, cf. lxiii. 10?
With these three books the study of the LXX is considerably ad-
vanced. Symmaehus' Version ofthe Psalms and the edition of Theodoret
's Quaesliones are good examples of the worthwhile research
that is being done in Madrid in recent years, while Femandez Marcos'
Introducciön is a serviceable and readablc general guide to the LXX.
For those who cannot easily read Spanish it deserves to be translated.
All three books rcflect great credit on present day Spanish studies in
the LXX. We can only be grateful to the three scholars for their valia-
Oxford George D. Kilpatrick
Ising, Gerhard [Hrsg.]: Die Niederdeutschen Bibelfrühdrucke. Kölner
Bibeln (um 1478), Lübecker Bibel (1494), Halberstädter Bibel
(1522). Bearb. unter Mitwirkung v. Ch. Müller Bd. IV: Hiob -
Jesaja. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag 1971, VIII, 639 S. gr. 8'. Bd. V:
Jeremia - Maleachi. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag 1974. VI, 629 S. gr.
8'. Bd. VI: Makkabäer - Apokalypse. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag
1976. VII, 744 S. gr. 8' = Deutsche Texte des Bd. Mittelalters,
LIV/IV. Lw. M 135,-. Bd. LIV/V. Lw. M 135,-. Bd. LIV/VI. Lw.
G. Ising hat in einem Zeitraum von 15 Jahren seine Neuausgabe
der niederdeutschen Bibelfrühdrucke abgeschlossen und mit dieser
Vollendung seines sechsbändigen Werkes einen gewichtigen Beitrag
geleistet zur Publikation aller deutschsprachigen Drucke aus vorre-
formatorischer Zeit. Zugleich hat damit sein Lebenswerk seine Krönung