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Altes Testament


Henry, Marie-Louise


Jahwist und Priesterschrift 1963


Bernhardt, Karl-Heinz

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1,3 Theologische Literaturzeitung 88. Jahrgang 1963 Nr. 2 114

and to have been charged with the responsibility of delivering ses of Arnos were not new. In his utterances it is implied

to the king of Israel Iarge numbers of animals each year. This that men ought to have known better than to act as they did,

does not make him an Israelite priest. It is hard to think of and his mission was to summon them to return to a way of

the Moabite king as an official of an Israelite shrine. He cer- Hfe whidi expressed the devotion their acts of worship pro-

tainly had little interest in any Israelite shrine, or in the fessed. His condemnation of the worship was that it was

Israelite king, for he revolted at the first opportunity. His meaningless because it did not express their spirit; but it was

supply of animals to the king of Israel was in the nature of as a religious teacher that he spoke, and Kapelrud's emphasis

tribute, and not the Service of one who held a religious on this is to be welcomed. With his concluding words the

appointment. It is not even stated that the animals were to reviewer would fully associate himself: "A really great man

be used exclusively for sacrifice, though at a time when all is he who is able to use and to transform the best ideas in

«laughter was sacrifice this was necessarily the case in some the tradition in which he Iives. Arnos was a great man.

sense. But the god of Me6ha was Chemosh, and not Yahweh. A great man in the Service of God."

As little can we assume that Arnos held a cultic appoint- Manchester H. H. Rowley
ment. It is true that he prophesied in the 6hrine of Bethel.
But this no more makes him an official of that or any shrine

than the fact that Jesus taucht in the Temple shows Him to Henry, Marie-Louise: Jahwist und Prieiterschrift. Zwei Glaubens-

have been a member of the Temple staff. Besides, Kapelrud teils zeugnisse des Alten Testaments. Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag [i960],

us that to Arnos Zion was the centre. He is not likely, there- «r- 8° " Arbeiten zur Theologie, hrsg. v. Th. Schlatter. 3.

fore, to have been on the staff of the Bethel shrine. We have 3-2°-

no record of his functioning in any capacity in the Jerusalem Eines der schwierigsten der Probleme, die mit der literari-
Temple. and if he did that would not have given him Status sehen Quellensdieidung im Pentateudi verbunden sind, ist die
in the Bethel shrine. We could not have clearer evidence that **.ra8e «ach den Motiven für die hier vorliegende Zusammennot
all prophets were cultic prophets in the sense of being Ehrung stark unterschiedlicher Quellen ohne eine durchgreifende
officially attached to the shrines where they prophesied, and Harmonisierung seitens der Endredaktion, so daß eine Fülle auf-
there is no evidence that Amos's standing as a np: made him ral'ender sachlicher Widersprüche und entgegengesetzter Urteile
a cultic person of any shrine. nebeneinander stehengeblieben ist. Die vorliegende, gemein-

Ti ____, . . . , . . , , _ ., .„ verständlich gehaltene Studie, die auf Vorträge anläßlich des

lhe oracles contained in Arnos 1:1—2:16 are said to Th»r,i~ «. j j t> j tl i • i ,„ j

h.>„„ f~ii„ j .i .. £ ,j £ , Ti;, '"eoiogentages und der Rostocker Theologischen Woche im

nave tollowed the pattern of an old execration formula. This j-l ° ■■ j ■ . -u • j- r> li

m.„ u i ^ tl . » w . £ _„ re 1958 zurückgeht, greift in diese Problematik ein.

may well be true. That Arnos was a Iiterary artist of some tv -w r • • i • - j •

«tili u ..„„t^i.,.! l„ v___r„a__a .—.^u. u. j„„:»j Ule Verfasserin unternimmt den im wesentlichen gelunge-

sKiu is empnasized by Kapelnid and can scarcely be denied. n. v , n . . i r i__■ s n • i .<• .

p^, .i £ £ i . ' i *_v-i — • j j u> n »ersuch, am Beispiel von Jahwist und Priesterschrift zu zei-

ror the form of his utterances he was doubtless indebted in _ , „ , , ,, "ZT „ . ,. .. . ..

i . j -f i. « i Ben- datj m beiden Ouel en Aussagen vorliegen, die zwar jeweils

many ways to his predecessors, even if his debt was not always a~„^- . , , , ^uk-*"- » w » * -

conscious. But the reviewer finds it hard to believe that these S * vi" Charakter der Herkunft aus einer unterschiedhchen

execrations were uttered at the New Year Festival, as Kapelrud fSe? S"1 S™"'™8!"' «* aber dennoA 'ct2tl,<* zu

c„„ — __i.__- <„. .u i -.u . er geschlossenen theologischen Aussage erganzen. So erscheint

«uggests. On such an occasion, for a part or the official cele- j.- T,tjf i j il-. j* n an. .„ i

lJT. i u n- x. ^ l- <.» 1 raditionssammlung des Jahwisten aus der Großreichszeit als

bration, we shou d expect a cultic prophet who was attached ei , , _ r* „ ' , . , _ , , ,

^ . . , . v .£ [i 1. .___.*t»a.«j " "bannendes Regulativ gegen die in jener Epoche besonders

to the particu ar shrine — if any prophets were so attached — r , , , * ■ . „ ,6C", . __ri/ i i • j

r . -r-i j .i . .i , srobe Oefahr der „Hybns (S. 15): Was zum Glanz Israels in der

o function. There tl no evidence that these oracles were 2eit Dav;d<. Sa^mos ffihrt ^ ^ kdn Verdjenst SQn.

uttered anywhere but ,n the northern k.ngdom and a np= dern frcies ErwahIungshandcln Jahwes an unwürdigen Menschen,
of Tekoa is not likely to have been on the staff of a northern Gemäß der Situation in der Exilszeit liegt die Tendenz der
S nne- Priesterschrift entgegengesetzt. Hier gilt es nicht, hybrides Selbst-
Again, the reviewer feels that Kapelrud overstresses the Vertrauen zu dämpfen, sondern erst wieder Vertrauen auf Jah-
debt of Arnos to Ugarit. He traces what he calls the "universa- wes Heilshandeln an Israel zu wecken. „Was der Jahwist unter
üsm" of Arnos back to the Ugaritic ideas about El. That in dem Zwang seiner Stunde seinen Hörern verwehren mußte: die
Israel Yahweh was equated with El is not to be gainsaid, and Gewißheit der tröstlichen Nähe Gottes; der Priester mußte sie
that EI was more than an Israelite divine name is certain. den Seinigen aus dem gleichen Zwange gewähren" (S. 25). Beide
There is no need to deny that much of non-Israelite origin Tendenzen aber sind von „universaler Gültigkeit", weil „die
eame into the worship and faith of Israel, even though much Gefährdung, gegen die sie sich richteten, eine allgemein mensch-
Was resisted. But there is some ambiguity in the use of the »che . .. ist" (S. 32).

term "universali6m". In Ugarit the recognition of El as the Diese charakteristischen Verkündigungstendenzen beider

supreme god did not militate against the worship of other ^raditl0n9Sammlungen sind von der Verfasserin mit großem

Rods beside him. In Israel other gods were frequently recog- ^inruhlungsvermögen überlegt herausgearbeitet und in gepflegter

nized beside Yahweh, but voices were continually raised Sprache dargestellt worden, so daß man ihr gern gelegentlich

aeainst this, and there is no evidence that Arnos ever kleine Übertreibungen, wie die Interpretation der Völkertafel

recognized that the worship of any other god in Israel was v°n Gen. 10 als Dokument der Brüderlichkeit, ja, der Feindes-

'egitimate. His "universalism" was not to be equated with liebe (S. 21,23), verzeiht,

any Ugaritic "universalism", therefore. At the same time it is Rostock
to be differentiated from Deutero-Isaiah's. To Arnos Yahweh

*as the only God who counted, and all nations were believed ,,.,.,„„

*o be both finally controlled by Him and answerable to Him. A Ruth: The Pottery of the M.ddle Bronze Age I in

B"t there is no evidence that Arnos was concerned to bring , "e- ^ •

ork» i ■ v l l i i £ „,„;_,,. lsrael Exploration Journal 10, 1960 S. 204—225.

otner nations to worship Yahweh, or ever thought of saying- » , p ' '

I„„i . , j ii .1 , £ x, „i ■• Aharoni, Y., u. M. Evenari, L. Shanan u. N. H. Tadmar: The An-

••Look unto me and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth. clent Dcsm A(friculture of 'the Negev: V. An Israelite Agricultural

At these and many other points the reviewer feels that Settlement at Ramat Matred.

Kapelrud has overstated the case, and to that extent ha« Israel Exploration Journal 10, 1960 S. 97—111.

*eakened it. To say this is not to fail in appreciation of this Avigad, N.: Excavations at Makmish. 1958 — Preliminary Report.

°°°k, which is a valuable corrective to many ideas about Israel Exploration Journal 10, 1960 S. 90—96.

Arnos which have gained currency. To represent him 6imply Grabar, O., u. J. Perrot, B. Ravani, Myriam Rosen: Sondage«

as a passionate social reformer is entirely misleading, and a Khirbet el-Minyeh.

Arnos would doubtless have shuddered at the idea. He thought Israel Exploration Journal 10, 1960 S. 226-243.

°f himself as the spokesman of God, and his primary interest Grill, Severin: Synonyme Engelnamen im Alten Testament.

was religious. Kapelrud rightly Stresses that the ethical empha- Theologische Zeitschrift 1«, 1962 S. 240—246.

Rostock Karl-Heim B ern ha rd 1