Recherche – Detailansicht






Literatur- und Forschungsberichte


Charlotte Hempel


Recent Research on the »Dead Sea Scrolls«

The term »Dead Sea Scrolls«, strictly speaking refers to a series of manuscript discoveries in the vicinity of the Dead Sea. In chrono-logical order of discovery the key sites are Khirbet Qumran, Wadi Murabba’at, Naḥal Ḥever, Wadi Sdeir, Masada, and Naḥal Arugot. In a narrower sense the designation Dead Sea Scrolls is frequently used to refer to the approximately 950 manuscripts found in eleven caves in the vicinity of Khirbet Qumran on the north western shore of the Dead Sea. This article will be concerned with research on the latter body of literature.

I From Rags to Riches

Research on the Qumran Dead Sea Scrolls entered the current mil-lennium with full access to all texts, most recently also with offi-cial editions of all the texts. The great majority of principal editions appeared in the prestigious series Discoveries in the Judaean Desert (DJD).1 The closing decades of the 20th century were characterised by a growing unease and controversy about the pace of publication of the large amount of then still unpublished fragmentary manuscripts from Qumran Cave 4. Events came to a head in September 1991 when, in a bold and rather unexpected move, the director of the Huntington Library in San Marino, California, permitted access to the library’s complete holdings of unpublished photographs of the Dead Sea Scrolls. This and other events which ultimately resulted in free access to all unpublished Scrolls in 1991 have been captured succinctly in a number of recent publications and need not be repeated here. 2 The pace of change is eloquently captured by the following figures: whereas eight volumes were published in the DJD Series in forty years, the last twenty years saw the appearance of thirty four volumes.3

Emanuel Tov of the Hebrew University was editor-in-chief of the DJD Series during the decades that witnessed a substantial expansion of the editorial team and a publication boom. He has also during the course of his editorship regularly published inventory lists of texts from the Judaean Desert. These efforts culminated in a substantial volume of extremely helpful inventories, lists, and tables as well as an account of the history of the Discoveries in the Judaean Desert Series in DJD 39 as well as his authoritative treatment of Scribal Practices and Approaches Reflected in the Texts Found in the Judean Desert (Brill, 2004). In addition to a list of all the texts (Tov with S. Pfann) DJD 39 also includes an »Annotated List of the Texts from the Judaean Desert by Content and Genre« (A. Lange and U. Mittmann-Richert), lists of biblical texts (Tov) and bib-lical passages (E. Ulrich), lists of particular kinds of texts such as papyrus texts, opisthographs, texts written in paleo-Hebrew, Greek, Aramaic, Nabatean, and the intriguing cryptic scripts also attested in the corpus (Tov). DJD 39 further offers a concordance of proper nouns in the non-biblical Scrolls (M. Abegg), annotated lists of overlaps and parallels in the non-biblical texts from Qumran and Masada (E. Tigchelaar), a section on scribal notations (Tov), and a chronological index listing texts according to their palaeographical date (B. Webster).

A substantial number of further developments, especially the appearance of four further volumes in the DJD Series (DJD 25, 32, 37, and 40)4 lie behind the appearance of a volume of Revised Lists of the Texts from the Judaean Desert (ed. E. Tov; Brill, 2010)5 that takes into account the most recent developments including also new identifications of previously published texts. While we can reasonably expect a much slower pace than the surge of editorial groundwork that took place over the last two decades, it is unlikely that even the Revised List will remain free of the need for further revision.

II Further Editions That Appeared Outside of the Official Publication Series

In 1994 James Charlesworth inaugurated a second series of editions of non-biblical Dead Sea Scrolls (The Dead Sea Scrolls: Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek Texts) published by Mohr Siebeck. Under the auspices of the Princeton Theological Seminary Dead Sea Scrolls Project (PTSDSSP) Charlesworth was able to assemble an impressive team of specialists to prepare the critical texts and new translations. The seventh of a projected ten volumes is devoted to The Temple Scroll and Related Texts and appeared in 2011.6 The volume includes editions of the two Temple Scroll manuscripts 11QTemplea (11Q19) and 11QTempleb (11Q20) alongside three related texts. The exact relationship of the latter compositions to 11QTa-b is not assured as the choice of nomenclature chosen by the editors signifies: Temple Scroll-Like Document (11Q21), Temple Scroll Source or Divergent Copy (4Q365a), and Temple Scroll Source or Earlier Edition (4Q524). These discrete editions are followed by a composite text. The wisdom of presenting a »composite text« of an array of »related« texts is methodologically questionable even if the introduction emphatically acknowledges the hypothetical nature of the exercise. The introduction to 11Q19 authored by Schiffman includes a section on »Relationships between the Manuscripts« by Charlesworth which ends by endorsing the possibility of overlap between a number of categories such as source, earlier edition or copy. Charlesworth closes by asserting »scholars should be allowed to imagine that a source of the Temple Scroll may not be paradigmatically distinct from a different edition.« (3) The volume subsequently introduces yet another term with the title »Temple Scroll Defining Edition« for 11Q19 (11QTemplea) (12–13). It is not clear whether we are meant to think of this partic­ular edition of 11Q19 as »defining« or whether yet another term is being introduced to classify 11Q19 as an ancient »Defining Edition«.

Given the complexity and uncertainties of our evidence the editorial discussion seems at times to obfuscate rather than advance the debate. Furthermore, the editorial decision to omit diacri-tical marks in the Composite Text in an effort to acknowledge the hypothetical character of this text increases the hypothetical presentation. Since much of the composite text draws on 11Q19, withholding indications about the uncertainty of readings does not aid understanding. In this respect the presentation of a similar endeavour by Elisha Qimron is to be preferred since he is able to include diacritical marks as well as precisely identifying the ma-terial preserved in manuscripts other than 11Q19 with dotted un­derlining.7

These reservations aside this volume fills a considerable gap by offering new critical editions8 of various manuscripts of the Temple Scroll and related texts between the covers of one book. Lawrence Schiffman, a foremost authority on law at Qumran, has devoted several decades to a close study of this scroll with a long list of publications resulting from it.9 Having his edition of the text of 11Q19 alongside new translations and editions of 11Q20 and the related text is incredibly valuable.

Reference should also be made to the publication in Modern Hebrew with English Introduction of the first volume of a new series of the Hebrew Texts from Qumran by E. Qimron of the Ben Gurion University of the Negev: The Dead Sea Scrolls: The Hebrew Writings (Yad Ben-Zvi, 2010). Volume 1 includes editions, introductions and notes for the Damascus Document, the Thanksgiving Scroll, the War Scroll, the Temple Scroll, the Rule Scroll (comprising 1QS/4QS; 1QSa; and 1QSb), and the Habakkuk Commentary. Qimron is a foremost expert on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and to be able to draw on his excellent transcriptions of a selection of well preserved texts is extremely valuable. A particular feature of the volume is the use of coloured font to enhance the clarity of synoptic editions indicating individual manuscript readings as well as hollow letters to indicate reconstructed text.

Even the principle editions are only milestones in a longer journey. Another section of this journey is a planned revised edition of the texts published by J. Allegro in DJD 5 in 1968.10 DJD 5 was already supplemented in 1970 with the publication of a monograph length review by J. Strugnell.11 A revision of DJD 5 by an international team of scholars is currently under way. A recent collection of studies offers a taste of the current research by members of this international team.12

To this we may add individual efforts such as the excellent recent treatment of the Genesis Apocryphon by D. Machiela that arose from his Notre Dame doctoral dissertation supervised by J. VanderKam.13 We noted above that the majority of the Qumran manuscripts were published in the official publication series DJD. A first edition of the Genesis Apocryphon by Avigad and Yadin appeared already 1956 outside of the DJD Series.14 However, the poor state of preservation of this Scroll has resulted in a complex subsequent history of research, much of it devoted to the publication of additional text. Particularly noteworthy was the publi-cation of several additional columns of the document in 1995.15 Machiela is able to offer an authoritative account of the history of the document’s publication and scholarly assessment so far before presenting a new edition of the text of the Apocryphon accompanied by full textual notes and a new English translation. Two subsequent chapters are devoted to the division of the earth among Noah’s descendants preserved in Genesis Apocryphon 16–17 and a consideration of the relationship of the Apocryphon to the Book of Jubilees concluding by proposing a shared cartographical source behind both works. As far as the Apocryphon’s provenance is concerned Machiela opts for a second century BCE Judean background that can be labelled »Qumran-friendly« (135). The volume also in­cludes more than 100 pages of plates offering high quality images of the scroll as well as a bibliography, an Aramaic concordance, and indices. This new edition of the Genesis Apocryphon comprises a substantial contribution to the scholarly assessment of this important text.

III Study Editions

Alongside major multi-volume scholarly text editions or volumes devoted to individual compositions recent years have also produced a series of publications that facilitate access to the material in a more convenient format. With reference to the non-biblical Scrolls Eduard Lohse’s Die Texte aus Qumran: Hebräisch und Deutsch (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1971) was a pioneering volume that was widely used far beyond the German speaking parts of the globe. In fact, it is still a popular introduction to reading the Scrolls thanks to added Masoretic punctuation. The same trusted format forms the basis of a second volume edited by Göttingen’s A. Steudel. The latter includes the Temple Scroll (11QTa [11Q19]; 11QTb [11Q20]; 11QTc? [11Q21]; and 4Q524); the Prayer of Nabonidus (4Q242); the so-called »Son of God Text« (4Q246); 11QMelichizedek (11Q13); 4QFlorilegium and 4QCatena A (4Q174+4Q177 published here together as two copies of a single work entitled Eschatological Midrash based on the editor’s extensive research on these manuscripts); as well as biblical commentaries on Micah (1Q14); Isaiah (4Q162 and 4Q164); Hosea (4Q166 and 4Q167). The perhaps least familiar Aramaic Apocalypse 4Q246 describes a scenario that culminates in the triumphant, eternal reign of the people of God preceded by the supremacy of an individual, identified by the editor as the infamous Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who is called son of God by his followers. 16 In addition, the two-volume Dead Sea Scroll Study Edition (Brill, 1999) edited by F. García Martínez and E. J. C. Tigchelaar was one of the first compendia to offer a comprehensive two volume edition of the non-biblical Scrolls. This collection includes fresh transcriptions and translations of the non-biblical Scrolls arranged numerically by »Q (Qumran) numbers« from 1Q1–11Q31. The number series includes biblical manuscripts which are referred to ad loc. with cross references to pertinent principal editions. The volume also includes the Masada manuscript of the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice, the medieval copies of the Damascus Document, and the Aramaic Levi Document from the Cairo Genizah. A revised edition is currently being prepared by a small team of researchers led by E. J. C. Tigchelaar of the Univer­sity of Leuven. On a slightly larger scale D. W. Parry and E. Tov edited a six-volume Dead Sea Scrolls Reader.17 The volumes include the non-biblical Qumran texts arranged according to rather broad generic criteria: Religious Law, Exegetical Texts, Parabiblical Texts, Calendrical and Sapiential Texts, Poetic and Liturgical Texts, as well as Additional Genres and Unclassified Texts. Ongoing advances in the scholarly debate on the generic classification of the Scrolls and the field of genre studies more widely make the classifications adopted in the Reader no more than a heuristic starting point rather than a definitive judgment. A recent thematic issue of the journal Dead Sea Discoveries was devoted to the theme »Rethinking Genre: Essays in Honor of John J. Collins’« and contains a series of excellent studies that probe the vexed search for generic classifications of the Scrolls.

IV Bible in the Making: The Evidence from Qumran

As far as the biblical Scrolls are concerned an important milestone in making this part of the finds accessible was the publication in 1999 of the Dead Sea Scrolls Bible by M. G. Abegg, E. Ulrich, and P. Flint. This volume presents the evidence of the biblical scrolls at a glance in English translation accompanied by introductions and explanatory notes. A further volume making the biblical Scrolls available also in Hebrew is the now available in E. Ulrich (ed.), The Biblical Qumran Scrolls.18 In close to 800 pages this important resource lays out the Hebrew and Aramaic texts largely based on the transcriptions and variants identified in volumes 1, 3, 4, 9, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 23, and 32 of the DJD Series. Relevant publications outside of the series such as the Leviticus Scroll in paleo-Hebrew script (11QpaleoLeva) from Cave 11 are also relied upon. Occasionally the editor has revised and corrected transcriptions or adapted the information on textual variants for the purposes of this volume which is intended as a convenient point of reference. Given the only introduction is a single page Preface this collection should usefully be consulted alongside publications that set out the contexts of what is presented in this volume including inevitable caveats omitted here. An excellent and up to date technical resource to consult alongside Ulrich’s magnificent text collection is A. Lange’s Handbuch der Textfunde vom Toten Meer (Mohr Siebeck, 2009).19

In addition, any number of publications from the extensive list of Ulrich’s own publications such as his The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Origins of the Bible (Eerdmans, 1999) will introduce readers to the complexity and nuance of the picture that presents itself. Since much of his scholarly œuvre has led the way in stressing the extent to which the evidence of the Scrolls challenges the presupposition of a hegemony of the Masoretic text in the late Second Temple period, it is perhaps not a little ironic that – for the sake of accessibility and clarity – Ulrich presents the »biblical Scrolls« very much within a Masoretic framework here. Most recently he went so far as to refer to the 20th century understanding of the significances of the Masoretic text as »pre-Copernican« (»Biblical Scrolls Scholarship in North America,« in D. Dimant ed., The Dead Sea Scrolls in Scholarly Perspective [Brill, 2012], 49–74, here 63). Anyone wishing to delve fully into the riches revealed by Qumran for our understanding of the emerging scriptures will inevitably need to consult principle editions and the scholarly debate surrounding the material more fully. As a quick and convenient point of reference Ulrich’s compendium is extremely useful and will hopefully invite a much wider pool of readers to explore this material.

Another excellent companion publication to The Biblical Qumran Scrolls has now appeared from the pen of E. Ulrich’s long term colleague at the University of Notre Dame (Indiana), J. C. VanderKam. The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Bible originated as the Speaker’s Lectures in Biblical Studies delivered at the University of Oxford in 200920 and is made up of six chapters. Chapter 1 is devoted to »The ›Biblical‹ Scrolls and Their Implications« and begins with a survey of the relevant material followed by a substantial number of illustrative examples and reflections on the implications of the evidence. Chapter 2 is entitled »Commentary on Older Scriptures in the Scrolls« – a carefully phrased chapter heading that warns us against approaching commentary or interpretation in narrowly canonical terms. After a judicious introduction VanderKam moves from examples in the Hebrew Bible (especially Daniel 9) via 1 Enoch and Jubilees to interpretation of scripture in Qumran including the biblical commentaries ( pesharim). Chapter 3 deals with »Authoritative Literature According to the Scrolls«, judiciously avoiding the anachronistic term »canon« in this context. Chapter 4 treats »New Copies of Old Texts« and includes discussions of Jubilees, Aramaic Levi, the Book of Giants, Ben Sira, Tobit, Enoch, the Epistle of Jeremiah, and Psalms 151, 154, and 155. Chapter 5 is concerned with »Groups and Group Controversies in the Scrolls.« After some open­ing reflections VanderKam, taking Josephus’ three Jewish groups as a starting point, turns to the evidence on Essenes, Pharisees, and Sadducees. He finds the Essene identification the most plausible for the movement behind the Scrolls, notes disagreement about Jewish law as going to the heart of the tensions between various groups, and concludes that the Pharisees emerge as primary opponents in the Scrolls. Chapters 6 and 7 turn our attention to the Scrolls and the New Testament where chapter length treatments are offered on the Scrolls and the Gospels and the Scrolls and Acts and the Pauline Epistles respectively. VanderKam’s overall conceptual approach presents the evidence of the Scrolls as »backlighting« on the New Testament (120.142). Chapter 6 discusses the evidence of the Scrolls on messianism, scriptural interpretation, legal matters, and the endorsement of rebuke based on Lev 19. On the issue of messianism VanderKam offers a judicious review of the Qumran evidence including the recently published Messianic Apocalypse (4Q521). The latter text predicts a series of happenings familiar also from Luke 7 such as restoring the sight of the blind (cf. Isa 35), conveying good news to the poor (cf. Isa 61), and raising the dead. The significance of the latter shared tradition element which is notably absent from otherwise important textual foundations in Isaiah 35 and 61 is duly emphasized. At the same time VanderKam draws attention to the somewhat unexpected parallelism between »His Messiah« and the plural phrase »the holy ones« as well as the distinct agents of the miraculous events. According to Luke 7 it is Jesus who will bring about these marvellous events whereas it is the Lord accord­ing to the Qumran text. Even though scriptural interpretation appears as one sub-heading in Chapter 6 it is arguably also the overarching concern that units the various topics addressed in the chapter at large. With reference to Acts and the Pauline Epistles Chapter 7 is structured around a number of thematic areas that can be mutually illuminated such as the »community of goods« re-ferred to in the opening chapters of Acts. This is followed by a nuanced analysis of subtle echoes of the »Jubilees-Qumran tradition« (155) about the festival of Weeks as an occasion for covenant re-newal and recalling the events at Sinai and the picture painted of Pentecost in Acts both in terms of Moses’/Jesus’ »ascension« and the resulting »ideal fellowship« (155). Finally, the discussion of the Pauline epistles (especially 2 Cor 6:14–7:1 and the phrase »the works of the law« in Rom 3:20.28 and Gal 2–3) demonstrates an awareness on the part of Paul of a number contemporary Jewish debates that have also left their mark on the Scrolls. VanderKam presents the contribution of the Dead Sea Scrolls for our understanding of the emerg­ing scriptures with authority and an admirable lightness of touch in drawing out the subtleties and complexities of the evidence.

V A New Generation of Reference Works: Concordances, Dictionaries and Handbooks

The last decade also saw the appearance of a number of very useful reference works, chief among them The Dead Sea Scrolls Concor-dance edited by M. G. Abegg, J. E. Bowley, and E. M. Cook.21 The first instalment to appear of this invaluable tool covered the non-biblical Scrolls and has recently been complemented by Vol. 3 in two parts covering the biblical texts from the Judaean Desert. The latter begins with a general introduction that is itself a small treasure chest by offering a bibliography of »re-editions and corrections of DJD« that helpfully identifies the manuscripts dealt with in each publication (ix–xi). In total the Concordance of Biblical Scrolls comprises 4240 entries in Hebrew, 315 in Aramaic (bearing in mind the Aramaic Targums were included in an earlier Volume), and 643 in Greek. Two appendices include an index of manuscripts as well as a list of »Typographical and Transcriptional Errors in the Text Editions.«

In addition the first two out of a planned three volumes of the Theologisches Wörterbuch zu den Qumrantexten (ThWQ) edited by Heinz-Josef Fabry (Bonn) and Ulrich Dahmen (Siegen) have now appeared. This resource stands firmly in the tradition established by the Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Alten Testament (ThWAT) co-edited by Fabry and follows in the wake of the completion of the publication of the material discussed above. The ThWQ offers around one thousand entries on lemmata from Qumran with the aim of examining the semantic evidence and its theological significance of theological streams in the wider biblical, early Jewish and early Christian background. A more comprehensively philological Qumran-Wörterbuch is currently being completed by a team of re­searchers led by Prof. Reinhard Kratz at the University of Göttingen. The latter project will present entries on every item of voca-bulary in the full corpus of non-biblical texts from Qumran with re-ference to etymology, morphology, and semantics. In addition to a close first hand examination of the epigraphical and material evidence of the often fragmentary manuscripts and the proposition of new readings where appropriate the Göttingen project also records alternative readings suggested by scholars outside of primary editions. Finally, Armin Lange and Matthias Weigold, Biblical Quotations and Allusions in Second Temple Jewish Literature (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2011) makes available quotations and allusions from the Hebrew Bible in Second Temple literature.

The two volume Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls edited by L.H. Schiffman and J. C. VanderKam offers authoritative concise treatments on a wide range of issues and texts and is still an extremely valuable too.22 For more comprehensive contributions on current issues in Dead Sea Scrolls research the publication in 2010 of the Oxford Handbook of the Dead Sea Scrolls edited by T. Lim and J. J. Collins is an important and current research tool. In the same year Collins co-edited with Dan Harlow the more wide-ranging and monumental Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism.23 This volume covers the period from Alexander the Great to the end of the Second Jewish Revolt and inevitably includes a fair number of entries on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Thus, the thirteen keynote essays that make up the first part of the Dictionary include an excellent essay by E. J. C. Tigchelaar on the Scrolls. The dictionary includes 520 entries on a wide range of topics and is an invaluable reference tool.

VI Recent Research on the Nature

of the Qumran Communities

In a sizeable volume S. Hultgren (From the Damascus Covenant to the Covenant of the Community)24 traces the roots of the Damascus Document in the Persian period before shifting his attention to a discussion of the much discussed relationship of the Damascus Document and the Community Rule. The volume also includes treatments of dualism and covenant theology in the Scrolls. The complex relationship of the Rule texts from Qumran is also investigated in the recently published volume by C. Hempel, The Qumran Rule Texts in Context (Mohr Siebeck, 2013). The studies collected in this volume highlight the literary complexity of the fully pub-lished corpus of Rule texts and explore their relationship to each other, to key legal and sapiential texts found at Qumran as well as a series of biblical texts including Daniel and Ezra-Nehemiah. Two chapters deal with priesthood in the non-biblical Scrolls focussing on the designations sons of Aaron and sons of Zakok respectively. An extended final chapter evaluates the character of Cave 4 and suggests that the learned and eclectic contents of this cave suggest its accessibility to an elevated, priestly component of movement be­hind the Scrolls. An overarching conclusion stresses the need to move beyond reading the Rule texts as ancient equivalents of »real­ity TV« in favour of appreciating the material as ancient literature whose claims need to be scrutinised and challenged in the same way as other ancient sources. The Rule texts are also dealt with by J. J. Collins in Beyond the Qumran Community: The Sectarian Movement of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Eerdmans, 2010). The volume opens with chapters on the Damascus Document and the Community Rule, and Collins advocates conceiving the groups behind both texts as two »branches« of the same larger movement (6). Alongside others (see A. Schofield, From Qumran to the Yaḥad, Brill 2008) Collins associates multiple copies of the Community Rule with a variety of settlements conceiving of the Yaḥad as an »umbrella organization« rather than a single community located at the site of Qumran (68–69). An alternative explanation for the textual plurality attested by the Community Rule manuscripts, favoured by Hempel, is to draw attention to an analogous plurality of text forms attes­ted by the Qumran biblical manuscripts and argue for a textually pluralistic landscape in the late Second Temple period. The Samaritan Pentateuch manuscripts also attest a tradition at peace with variants and a lack of conformity (see below Schattner-Rieser in Becker/Frey, Qumran und der biblische Kanon, 73). Collins’ book also includes a sympathetic yet even-handed review of the case for an identification of the movement behind the Scrolls with the Es-senes as well as a critical review of recent debates on the archaeo-logical evidence from Qumran.

VII Commentaries and Guides

A new generation of commentaries on the Qumran texts have now appeared with more in preparation. In particular the Eerdmans Commentaries of the Dead Sea Scrolls Series now features two completed volumes on the Liturgical Works (by J. Davila) and Wisdom Literature (by J. Kampen).25 More advanced is the publication of a series of Companions to the Qumran Scrolls that was, initiated by Sheffield University Press and latterly published by T & T Clark. This series includes volumes on the Damascus Texts (C. Hempel), the Temple Scroll and Related Texts (S. White Crawford), the Pesharim (T. Lim), the Exegetical Texts (J. Campbell), the Serekh Texts (s. Metso), the Purity Texts (H. Harrington), the War Texts (J. Du­haime), and the Mystical Texts (P. S. Alexander). 26

VIII Edited Collections

A great deal of the nitty-gritty of research in the field of Qumran has appeared in the form of a steady stream of journal articles, monographs, and high quality conference proceedings. For the purposes of this review two volumes were made available to me and shall serve as illustrative examples of the kinds of collaborative proceedings that have appeared in large numbers in the field of Qumran studies.27 Qumran Aktuell edited by S. Beyerle and J. Frey includes seven chapters and originated at a Day Conference hosted by the editors at the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University in Greifswald.28 In this volume, F. García Martínez offers timely reflections on the completed publication of the Qumran texts and its impact on current research. He begins by noting shifts in the hermeneutical context of the material from an initial focus on a small number of well preserved manuscripts from Qumran Cave 1 to an appreciation of the full corpus. The body of his discussion is divided into three parts: »Biblical« Texts, Para-Biblical Texts, and Writings of the Qumran Community. Regarding the »biblical texts« García Martínez highlights the plurality of text forms attested in the final phases of a process he terms »becoming ›Bible‹.« He draws out the problems of upholding distinctions such as »biblical« and »non-biblical,« and in the context of »para-biblical texts,« also between »not yet biblical« and »no longer biblical«. 29 E. Tov offers a comprehen-sive overview over the biblical manuscripts in Greek from the Judean Desert (a slightly revised German translation of the English original that appeared in E. Tov, Hebrew Bible, Greek Bible, and Qumran, Mohr Siebeck, 2008, 339–364.) U. Schattner-Rieser offers a full assessment of Pre-, Proto-, and Anti-Samaritan aspects of the Qumran finds in a contribution that represents an extended and revised version of an earlier treatment (in Becker/Frey, Qumran und der biblische Kanon, Neukirchener Verlag, 2009, 147–170). She defines pre-Samaritan as texts that attest literary features that are found in the Samaritan Pentateuch tradition (chiefly harmonisation and supplementation) but lack ideological features (such as the veneration of Mount Gerizim). Texts that attest both are referred to as proto-Samaritan (67). Schattner-Rieser adds a health warning on this potentially misleading terminology since we must allow for shared textual traditions that pre-date the Samaritan schism. M. Popovi evaluates the contribution of the Dead Sea Scrolls to our understanding of astrological and magical traditions in ancient Judaism. The essay builds on the author’s doctoral dissertation (Reading the Human Body, Brill 2007) and develops his thinking in light of two more recent monographs by R. Leicht (Astrologumena Judaica, Mohr Siebeck, 2006) and G. Bohak (Ancient Jewish Magic, CUP, 2008). Having outlined a bipartite division of ancient astronomy into general and individual astronomy Popovi is able to demonstrate both strands also in the Scrolls which offer valuable clues to the kinds of cultural contexts where such learning was studied. N. Zwanzig investigates the much debated question of the interpretation of Ezek 37:1–14 in light of the Septuagint and 4QPseudo Ezekiela allowing (with Popovi, »Bones, Bodies, and Resurrection in the Dead Sea Scrolls«, in Nicklas/Reiterer/Verheyden, The Human Body in Death and Resurrection, Brill, 2009, 221–242) for the possi-bility of the emerging concept of physical resurrection in the reception of Ezekiel attested in 4QPsEzeka. The editor S. Beyerle offers a comprehensive assessment of the state of the question of Qumran and apocalypticism that incorporates not only the now fully published Scrolls corpus but also includes a treatment of the recently published inscribed stone known as »The Vision of Gab­riel.« His discussion benefits from his own German translation of the »Vision of Gabriel.« The volume ends with a wide-ranging and nuanced assessment of the significance of the Dead Sea Scrolls for New Testament scholarship by J. Frey. Having drawn attention to a notable »Christian agenda« in the early decades of Qumran re­search Frey concludes by stressing the importance of the Scrolls for illuminating the ancient Jewish context of the New Testament. He ends by stressing that a nuanced understanding of the rich possibilities for mutual illumination between both corpora will require comparative studies that go far beyond the gathering of parallels. Overall this volume offers a set of essays, many of them very comprehensive indeed, on the state of the art in Qumran research across a considerable range – if not the anything like the full spectrum – of important topics in current research.

The volume edited by Frey/Claußen/Kessler, Qumran und die Archäologie30 is made up of seventeen chapters devoted to the history of scholarship up to the present relating to the interpretation of the archaeology of the site of Qumran in context, both regionally and in relation to the texts found in the nearby scroll caves. J. Frey opens the collection with an extensive and even-handed thematic introduction to the questions which ends with a brief outline of the contributions that make up the remainder of the book. C. Claußen takes us back to the period prior to the discovery of the Scrolls in a chapter devoted to descriptions about the site of Qumran in the accounts of early explorers in Palestine which began in earnest in the 18 th century. D. Vieweger offers methodological perspectives from the field of Hebrew Bible scholarship, especially on the role and limits of archaeology in illuminating texts. S. Hütting offers further methodological reflections on the scholarly assessment of both archaeological and literary bodies of evidence by stressing the need for methodological autonomy before the results of each set of disciplines can fruitfully be brought together. These four essays are intended to introduce the more concrete studies that follow. A second part comprises a series of six chapters that are devoted to particular sets of data or issues relating to the archaeological remains from Qumran. J. Zangenberg addresses the question of the particularity of the Qumran remains in light of recent research with particular reference to the intriguing animal deposits, the recently described glass from Qumran, and the supposed discovery of a second al fresco toilet outside of the settlement. Zangenberg’s sympathies are with an interpretation of the site that stresses the regional context of the site’s features. As noted in Frey’s judicious introductory chapter the truth it likely somewhere in the middle and it is possible to recognize distinctive features alongside regional characteristic. It is noteworthy that Zangenberg’s sketch of key features speaks of the two categories of »still unique« and »connective« – clearly assuming a trajectory – and notably lacks reference to the large number of ritual baths. J. Gunneweg offers a detailed account of recent progress in the harnessing of advances in natural sciences to the study of the Qumran finds. In particular Gunneweg explains and reports on the material examination of textiles and ceramics with the aid of »nuclear archaeology« (153). Given the ongoing debates and uncertainties about so much relating to the interpretation of the archaeological remains and the provenance of individual manuscripts it is hoped that advances of this kind continue to blossom. J. E. Taylor and S. Gibson offer the results of an extensive amount of fieldwork undertaken at Qumran and its vicinity between 2006 and 2009 to establish the case for main or regional roads, paths, and trails with respect to the site’s regional and local connections. They conclude that while several routes connected Qumran to the Dead Sea region since the 8 th century BCE many paths remained little developed in the last two centuries BCE. Gibson and Taylor suggest that the use of the overland route between Jericho and En Gedi may have receded in favour of travelling by boat. J. Ben-Dov introduces the state of research on the much discussed stone disk often referred to as the Qumran roundel and offers his own reflections on its place in the wider context of the Qumran finds and is rather skeptical regarding any connection between the dial and the Ya ḥad. M. Popovi presents a detailed examination of the oft-repeated claim that victorious Roman soldiers inflicted malicious damage on several manuscripts from Qumran Cave 4 and concludes there is little evidence to support this sug-gestion. Part II closes with a critical evaluation of the regional re-lationship of Qumran to Hasmonean and Herodian by Jericho A. Lykke and F. Schipper. The authors emphasize challenges in the methodological approach to the excavations in Jericho which, like Qumran, was often influenced by the literary sources preserved in the writing of Josephus. The authors further reflect on the limitations of the term »Hasmonean« with reference to archaeological remains, especially architecture. A third part of the volume is concerned with the texts and the library(ies) found at Qumran and comprises two contributions. D. Stökl Ben Ezra outlines his sug-gestion, published previously, that the Qumran manuscripts attest to two deposits resulting in a group of »old« and »new« caves based on a close study of the average age of the documents found in each cave. In particular, Stökl Ben Ezra emphasized that the average age of the manuscripts found in Caves 1 and 4 (his »old caves«) differs from the average scroll age of Caves 2, 3, 5, 6, and 11 (his »young caves«). While he holds that the contents of the Qumran caves go back to one and the same group he proposes they were deposited on two occasions: in 9/8 BCE in the face of an attack and again in the face of the Roman assault of 68 CE. Stökl Ben Ezra ends with a cri-tical, and rather skeptical, assessment of S. Pfann’s recent sugges-tion that Qumran revealed no less than seven different »libraries«. D. Dimant returns to the complex task of offering criteria in order to identify a sub-group of Qumran texts as sectarian. Her article is an enlarged, revised, and updated version of an earlier publication in Hebrew (in M. Kister ed., The Qumran Scrolls, Yad Ben Zvi, 2009, 49–86). Building on her own earlier seminal studies on this ques-tion Dimant offers a list of terms associated with the community’s organization, its history, and its worldview respectively. The latter category is considered a less reliable indicator of sectarian pro-venance in light of overlap with non-sectarian compositions. The chapter also includes a discussion of texts of »disputed« prove-nance (386) such as 4QInstruction, 4QDaily Prayers (4Q503) and the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice as well as an intermediate category of works that display »affinities« with the writings of the »scrolls community« without attesting the characteristic terminology identified here. Her observation that the writers behind the sectarian corpus were fond of a narrowing of biblical terms by means of ad­ding the article or coining a construct phrase is well taken. Dimant is to be credited for continuing to refine her important research on these complex issues. There is clearly a need for juggling the difficult balance between classification and nuanced, subtle continuities that is very admirably attempted here. A slightly different emphasis in the face of compatible challenges is found in the work of García Martínez outlined above who is inclined to favour a spectrum of literary endeavor that defies what one might describe as a revised customary classification proposed here. An additional level of nuance that is rapidly gaining ground is the recognition that speaking of »the community« in the singular with reference to the varied panorama of manuscripts of rules and regulations is increasingly untenable .31 The final part of this rich volume contains five chapters that deal chiefly with architectural imagination and focus on the Temple Scroll and the New Jerusalem text. S. Paganini reflects on the reception of the Temple Scroll at Qumran by stressing that its emphases on the importance of priestly oversight over worldly rulers as well as the elaborate description of a Temple of magnificent proportions would have served their own ends very well even though the work was not composed at Qumran. J. Maier’s contribution begins by stressing the striving on the part of the inhabitants of the Ancient Near East for a harmonious equivalence between cosmic order and cultic practice that is reflected also in cultic architecture. Against this background Maier explores the relationship of a series of ideal literary representations of the central sanctuary (P’s instructions and construction account for the tabernacle; Ezek 40–48; and the Temple Scroll from Qumran) to the expansion of the Second Temple under Herod. He concludes that while the Herodian Temple shares an inner holy square in line with the literary accounts mentioned above, it was its palatial and for-tress-like features that would eventually invite its destruction. H. Antonissen offers an analysis of the »visionary architecture« of the New Jerusalem text from Qumran. He begins with a detailed ac­count of the narrative framework of the work before focusing on a series of architectural features which point towards an eschatological city built according to a grid structure that was able to accommodate a substantial number of individuals; pilgrims or military personnel suggested by previous scholars are both considered possibilities. C. A. Evans investigates Second Temple evidence on hang­ing and crucifixion in light of the discovery of an ossuary containing the remains of a crucified male near Giv’at ha-Mivtar. After an overview over key references to »hanging« in the Hebrew Bible (Deut 21:22–23; Gen 40; Josh 8:29; 10:26–27; 2 Sam 4:12 etc.) Evans turns to Philo, Josephus, and the Dead Sea Scrolls to uncover what he refers to rather imprecisely as »First Century Interpretation of the Texts of Hanging« (484). A final section is devoted to the Giv’at ha-Mivtar ossuary, the evidence of a number of graffiti and Chris­tian art as well as features in early New Testament manuscripts representing the cross 32 all pointing to what Evans calls »a re-markable convergence and coherence with first-century Judaeo-Christian literature« (501). Finally, M.Tilly examines the legislation on death and mourning laid down in the Temple Scroll in com-parison to Rabbinic law. He argues that the Temple Scroll’s strict and enhanced stance on pur­ity requirements would have been rather difficult to implement. By contrast, the concern that comes to the fore in early Rabbinic texts was to arrive at practices that while conforming with the Torah could also feasibly be observed in the absence of the Temple. Tilly closes with pertinent reflections on the intriguing mismatch between the stringent requirements laid down in the Temple Scroll and the archaeological remains at the site, especially the cemeteries.

IX History of Scholarship

Three volumes have recently appeared that offer a comprehensive account of the history of scholarship of the relatively young discipline of Qumran Studies. W. F. Fields, The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Full History (Brill, 2009)33 offers a sumptuously illustrated account of the acquisition and early publication history of the Dead Sea Scrolls based on an impressive number of interviews across the globe. D. Dimant’s The Dead Sea Scrolls in Scholarly Perspective (Brill, 2012) represents an admirably comprehensive history of scholarship on the Dead Sea Scrolls that is presented »geographically« according to the countries or parts of the world where the research was car-ried out. Finally, and still with a geographical theme, P. W. Flint, J. Duhaime and K. S. Baek (eds.), Celebrating the Dead Sea Scrolls: A Canadian Collection (Brill, 2012) focuses on the contribution of Canadian scholars, broadly defined, to the study of the Dead Sea Scrolls.

X Conclusion: Riches of Texts, a Larger and Cosmopolitan Community of Scholars, and Fresh Perspectives

In an article such as this it is impossible to be comprehensive but the following trends may be noted. The most important milestone in scrolls scholarship since the eventful discoveries of 1947 – and arguably even more significant – was undoubtedly the full publication of the corpus in 2009.34 In its wake the scholarly community from this and related disciplines was served well with the publication of a number of excellent reference works mentioned above. The full publication of the texts also brought with it a democratisation of the textual picture. Compositions – chiefly from Cave 4 – that were for a long time inaccessible to most scholars are now visible to all and have, to some degree, dwarfed the material from Cave 1 which still dominates the perception of the finds in the imagina­tion of non-specialists. This brought with it a democratisation of the scholarly community as since 1991 all qualified scholars have been able to access the full corpus. Another palpable feature of recent research and the scholarly milestones reached is the colla-borative spirit that made the Dead Sea Scrolls Publication Project and many other large publication projects possible.

As far as the analysis of the material is concerned the publica-tion of the full corpus of the Dead Sea Scrolls has brought with it an air of free and at times rather radical thinking that has made the last decade of Qumran research exceptionally stimulating. Given the scope of new material, including also new manuscripts of previously published texts such as the Community Rule, it was in-evitably necessary to re-draw our maps. We have also only recently been able to fully grasp the scope of the material and its signi-fi cance for our understanding of Second Temple Judaism more broadly. We note a tendency that – while not denying distinctive features – emphasizes the important witness of the scrolls about a chronologically, geographically, and socially broader phenomenon than once thought.35 A key example of this scholarly shift is the recognition in recent research on the Rule texts that this sub-corpus displays a complex literary history that is difficult to reconcile with the once popular »reality TV« approach to this material.36 Another area where scholars have offered serious challenges to some foundational assessments that are still often taken for granted is the proposal by Martin Goodman that the movement behind the scrolls had not turned its back on the Jerusalem Temple. While no doubt in tension with other Jews on matters of cultic obser-vance Goodman stresses that this is not exceptional and has good precedents in the prophetic tradition of the Hebrew Bible as well as being amply attes­ted in Josephus’ reports of heated disagreements on cultic matters by groups associated with the Temple. 37 Without offering a comprehensive list of shifts and adjustments of perspective these examples may serve to illustrate the intellectual climate of openness that currently defines the field.

The concentric circles of increasing openness are now also reach­ing the wider public in the form of high quality digital images of the scrolls now freely available for study with the aid of the Israel Antiquities Authority’s Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library and the Digital Dead Sea Scrolls made available by the Israel Mu­seum in Jerusalem. Moreover, the pioneering website of the Hebrew University’s Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature offers excellent introductions to the scrolls and the site of Qumran as well as the most up-to-date, and increas­ingly searchable, bibliography (post 1995) to be found anywhere in the world. In sum, after a long period of stagnation the last two decades have seen a flourishing of research on the Dead Sea Scrolls that is unravelling boundaries in the study of the textual pre-his-tory of the Hebrew Bible, »sectarianism« in Second Temple Judaism, the pre-history of the canon(s), and the once privileged access to these treasures which can now be perused in classrooms and coffee shops across the globe.


1) Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1955–2011.
2) Collins, John J.: The Dead Sea Scrolls. A Biography. Princeton/Woodstock: Princeton University Press 2012. 288 S. = Lives of Great Religious Books. Lw. US$ 24,95. ISBN 978-1-40084460-9, 213–246, and J. C. VanderKam and P. Flint, The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls (T & T Clark, 2002), 381–403. See also T. Lim, H. MacQueen, C. Carmichael (eds.), On Scrolls, Artefacts, and Intellectual Property (Sheffield Academic Press, 2001).
3) For full details see E. Tov (ed.), The Texts of the Judaen desert. Indices and an introduction to the »Discoveries of the Judean Desert Series« (DJD 39; Clarendon Press, 2002).
4) See E. Ulrich et al., Qumran Cave 4. 10: The Prophets (DJD 25; Clarendon, 1997); P. W. Flint and E. Ulrich, Qumran Cave 1.2: The Isaiah Scrolls (DJD 32; Clarendon, 2010); É. Puech, Qumran Cave 4.27: Textes araméens, deuxième partie: 4Q550–575, 580–582 (DJD 37; Clarendon, 2009); and C. Newsom, Hartmut Stegemann, and Eileen Schuller, Qumran Cave 1.3: 1QHodayota, with Incorporation of 4QHodayota-f and 1QHodayotb (DJD 40; Clarendon, 2009).
5) Tov, Emanuel: Revised Lists of the Texts from the Judaean Desert. Leiden u. a.: Brill 2009. VII, 139 S. Lw. EUR 104,00. ISBN 978-90-04-17949-3.
6) The Dead Sea Scrolls. Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek Texts with English Translations. Vol. 7: Temple Scroll and Related Documents. Ed. by J. H. Charlesworth and H. W. Morisada Rietz, L. L. Johns, L. H. Schiffman, A. D. Gross, and M. C. Rand along with J. Milgrom, M. T. Davis, and A. de la Ronde Van Kirk. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck; Louisville: Westminster John Knox 2011. XXVII, 414 S. Lw. EUR 109,00. ISBN 978-3-16-149755-1 (Mohr Siebeck); 978-0-664-23818-6 (Westminster John Knox). Previous volumes in the series are J. Charlesworth; F. M. Cross, J. Milgrom et al., The Community Rule and Related Documents (PTSDSS 1; Mohr Siebeck, 1994); J. Charlesworth, J. M. Baumgarten, M. T. Davis et al., Damascus Document, War Scroll, and Related Documents (PTSDSS 2; Mohr Siebeck, 1995); J. Charlesworth, W. M. Rietz; J. M. Baumgarten et al., Damascus Document II, Some Works of the Torah, and Related Documents (PTSDSS 3; Mohr Siebeck, 2006); J. Charlesworth, W. M. Rietz; P. W. Flint et al., Pseudepigraphic and Non-Masoretic Psalms and Prayers (PTSDSS 4a; Mohr Siebeck, 1997); J. Charlesworth, C. Newsom, and W. M. Rietz et al., Angelic Liturgy: Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice (PTSDSS 4b; Mohr Siebeck, 1999); J. Charlesworth, M. Horgan, and W. M. Rietz et al., Pesharim and Related Documents (PTSDSS 6b; Mohr Siebeck, 2002).
7) E. Qimron, The Temple Scroll: A Critical Edition with Extensive Reconstructions (IES, 1996).
8) The principal editions of each of the texts gathered here are to be found in Y. Yadin, The Temple Scroll (3 vols; IES, 1983); F. García Martinez, E. Tigchelaar, and A. van der Woude, DJD 23: 357–414 with accompanying Plates for 11Q20–21; S. White Crawford, DJD 13: 319–333 with Plates for 4Q365a; and É. Puech, DJD 25: 85–114 with Plates for 4Q524. In addition S. White Crawford has offered an excellent accessible treatment of the texts in The Temple Scroll and Related Texts (Sheffield Academic Press, 2000).
9) See now the substantial collection Schiffman, The Courtyards of the House of the Lord: Studies on the Temple Scroll (Brill, 2008).
10) J. M. Allegro with A. A. Anderson, Qumrân Cave 4.1 (4Q158–4Q186) (DJD 5; Clarendon, 1968).
11) J. Strugnell, »Notes en marge du Volume V des ›Discoveries in the Judaean Desert of Jordan,‹« RQ 7 (1970): 163–276.
12) G. Brooke and J. Høgenhaven (eds.), The Mermaid and the Partridge: Essays from the Copenhagen Conference on Revising Texts from Cave Four (Brill, 2011).
13) Machiela, Daniel A.: The Dead Sea Genesis Apocryphon. A New Text and Translation with Introduction and Special Treatment of Columns 13–17. Leiden u. a.: Brill 2009. XVI, 326 S. m. Abb. = Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah, 79. Lw. EUR 119,00. ISBN 978-90-04-16814-5.
14) N. Avigad and Y. Yadin, A Genesis Apocryphon: A Scroll from the Wilderness of Judea (Magnes Press, 1956).
15) M. Morgenstern, E. Qimron, and D. Sivan, »The Hitherto Unpublished Columns of the Genesis Apocryphon,« Abr-Nahrain 33 (1995), 30–54.
16) A. Steudel, Die Texte aus Qumran II: Hebräisch/Aramäisch und Deutsch (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2001).
17) D. W. Parry and E. Tov (eds.), The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader (6 volumes; Brill, 2004).
18) Ulrich, Eugene [Ed.]: The Biblical Qumran Scrolls. Transcriptions and Textual Variants. Leiden u. a.: Brill 2010. XVI, 796 S. = Supplements to Vetus Testamentum, 134. Lw. EUR 139,00. ISBN 978-90-04-18038-3.
19) A. Lange, Handbuch der Textfunde vom Toten Meer. Bd. 1: Die Handschriften biblischer Bücher von Qumran und den anderen Fundorten (Mohr Siebeck, 2009).
20) VanderKam, James C.: The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Bible. Grand Rapids u. a.: Wm. B. Eerdmans 2012. XIV, 188 S. Kart. US$ 25,00. ISBN 978-0-8028-6679-0.
21) Abegg, Jr., Martin G., Bowley, James E., Cook, Edward M., in Consultation with Eugene C. Ulrich: The Dead Sea Scrolls Concordance. Vol. 3: The Biblical Texts from the Judean Deserts. 2 Parts. Leiden u. a: Brill 2010. XVII, 761 S. Lw. EUR 289,00. ISBN 978-90-04-18235-6; dies.: The Dead Sea Scrolls Concordance. Vol. 1: The Non-Biblical Texts from Qumran (Brill, 2003).
22) L. H. Schiffman and J. C. VanderKam (eds.), Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls (2 volumes; OUP USA, 2000).
23) J. J. Collins and D. Harlow (eds.), The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism (Eerdmans, 2010). Cf. the review by Beate Ego in ThLZ 137 [2012], 28.
24) Hultgren, Stephen: From the Damascus Covenant to the Covenant of the Community. Literary, Historical, and Theological Studies in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Leiden u. a.: Brill 2007. XV, 621 S. = Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah, 66. Lw. EUR 220,00. ISBN 978-90-04-15465-0.
25) J. R. Davila, Liturgical Works (Eerdmans Commentaries of the Dead Sea Scrolls; Eerdmans, 2000), and J. Kampen, Wisdom Literature (Eerdmans Commentaries of the Dead Sea Scrolls; Eerdmans, 2011).
26) C. Hempel, The Damascus Texts (Sheffield Academic Press, 2000); S. White Crawford, The Temple Scroll and Related Texts (Sheffield Academic Press, 2000); T. Lim, The Pesharim (Bloomsbury, 2002); J. G. Campbell, The Exegetical Texts (Continuum, 2007); S. Metso, The Serekh Texts (T & T Cark, 2007); H. Harrington, The Purity Texts (Continuum, 2007); J. Duhaime, The War Texts: 1QM and Related Manuscripts (Continuum, 2007); and P. S. Alexander, The Mystical Texts: Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice and Related Manuscripts (Continuum, 2006).
27) See, e. g., K. Berthelot and D. Stökl Ben Ezra (eds.), Qumranica Aramaica (Brill, 2010); D. Dimant and R. G. Kratz, The Dynamics of Language and Exegesis at Qumran (Mohr Siebeck, 2009); C. Hempel (ed.), The Dead Sea Scrolls: Texts and Context (Brill, 2010); and now no less than twelve volumes of Proceedings of Symposia hosted by the Hebrew University’s Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature (Brill, 1998–) as well as seven volumes of Proceedings of the International Organization for Qumran Studies (Brill, 1994–).
28) Beyerle, Stefan, u. Jörg Frey [Hrsg.]: Qumran aktuell. Texte und Themen der Schriften vom Toten Meer. M. Beiträgen v. S. Beyerle, J. Frey, F. García Martínez, M. Popovic´, U. Schattner-Rieser, E. Tov u. N. Zwanzig. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Theologie 2011. VII, 293 S. = Biblisch-Theologische Studien, 120. Kart. EUR 34,90. ISBN 978-3-7887-2483-2.
29) For two excellent treatments that point the way forward see G. J. Brooke, »New Perspectives on the Bible and Its Interpretation in the Dead Sea Scrolls«, and R. G. Kratz, »Friend of God, Brother of Sarah, and Father of Isaac: Abraham in the Hebrew Bible and in Qumran,« in: The Dynamics of Language and Exegesis at Qumran (ed. D. Dimant and R. G. Kratz; Mohr Siebeck, 2009), 19–37 and 79–105.
30) Frey, Jörg, Claußen, Carsten, u. Nadine Kessler [Hrsg.]: Qumran und die Archäologie. Texte und Kontexte. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2011. XI, 561 S. m. Abb. = Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament, 278. Lw. EUR 139,00. ISBN 978-3-16-150840-0.
31) Collins, John J.: Beyond the Qumran Community. The Sectarian Movement of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Grand Rapids u. a.: Wm. B. Eerdmans 2009. XII, 266 S. m. Abb. Kart. US$ 25,00. ISBN 978-0-8028-2887-3; Frey, Qumran und die Archäologie, 39; Hempel, Qumran Rule Texts in Context; Schofield, From Qumran to the
32) For the latter evidence see L. Hurtado, The Earliest Christian Artifacts (Eerdmans, 2006).
33) Fields, Weston W.: The Dead Sea Scrolls. A Full History: Vol. One, 1947–1960. Leiden u. a.: Brill 2009. 592 S. m. Abb. Geb. EUR 80,00. ISBN 978-90-04-17581-5.
34) See further C. Hempel, »Texts, Scribes and Scholars: Reflections on a Busy Decade in Dead Sea Scrolls Research,« ExpTim 120 (2009): 272–276.
35) See J. J. Collins, Beyond the Qumran Community, and Schofield, From Qumran to the Yaḥad.
36) See C. Hempel, Qumran Rule Texts in Context, and further literature cited there.
37) See M. Goodman, »The Qumran Sectarians and the Temple in Jerusalem,« in: The Dead Sea Scrolls: Texts and Context (ed. C. Hempel; Brill, 2010), 263–273.