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Neues Testament


Swidler, Leonard J.


Der umstrittene Jesus 1993


Wiefel, Wolfgang

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137 Theologische Literaturzei.ung 118. Jahrgang 1993 Nr. 2 138

T t here somewhat out of place as it hardly touches upon NTGreek.

• Porter, Stanley E. [Ed.]: The Language of the New Testa he ^ ^ ^ Qf Greek ^ ^

ment. Classic Essays. Sheffield: JSOT Press 1991. 238 S » «» ^ ^ ^ for ^ the of ^ NX

= Journal for the Study of the New Testament, SuppLW»" certainly Palestinian. Wholly out of place is H. C. Geh-

60. Lw. £ 27.50. ISBN 1-85075-325-3. gssay „The Hebraic character of Septuagint Greek",

_ „ , m ... centurv Which deals mainly with the Greek of Genesis. Samuel and

The essays here re-edited are almost all BromitWS temu y. ^ ^ ^ NT palMeh, Although it can be

ranging from A. Deissmann (1899) to M. Silva (1980). 1 he uiic s • eek faUs oulsjde (he s of ^

as well as the opening lines of the editor's preface clearly defi- stu0y

ne what we may expect to find in this book: "classic essays ^ however, are N. Turner's "The Language of

regarding the Greek language of the NT; that is, what kindi oi ^ ^ Disciples" (1965), as well as L. Rydbeck's chapter

^reek is it: Semitic, koine, transitionary, and so on. .u uns u Question of Linguistic Levels and the Place of the New

the purpose of the collection, one must say, however, that some _ ^ ^ Contemporary Language Milieu" (1967; transl.

of the articles now included do not strictly come under this nea- ^ German) M. Silva's "Bilingualism and the Character of

dmg for various reasons, and one not at all. Moreover. the order ^^.^ Greek-( ,980) is a bit of a hybrid. Its title as well as its
of presentation is neither chronological nor according to subjec ^ Alexandrian and Palestinian bilingualism would

mai!fr , rvdo rather place it under the heading of the external history of Greek,

The first two, however, are fully in line: Deissman s encyc ^ Qtfaa hand it a)s0 contains a defence of Deissman's po-

Pedia article "Hellenistic Greek with Special Consideration o ^ fl discussion of the notions of parole and style with re-

the Greek Biblc" (1899, transl. from the German), and J. n. ^ nt ^ wa[Tant ^ insertion

Moulton's "New Testament Greek in the Light of Modern uis- B would have been wrong if au these essays had been

covery" (1909). But the third article, C. C. Torrey's 'The Ära- Zgefou under another title, something like "Biblical

maic of the Gospels" (1942). in spite of its title, merely fflffl» ^ ^ ^ ^ Background- but even then

that the original language of many canonical and apocrypnai ^ m other conlributions by Torrey and Black,

works was Aramaic rather than Hebrew, and as far as it w . ^. ^ ^ speaking aboutAramaic and not about Greek.

Hebrew. that its use was artificial, and therefore, that a gospe ^ however such a collection could not do without

"mtended for the Jews of Palestine" (106) could not have been tat6o^ ^ c p Burney-S 7-/,^ Poe,ry of Our Lord

»ritten in Hebrew. let alone in Greek. "the language ot nated s ^ ^ undoubtediy a classic in the field. whe-

oppressors" (105), but only in Aramaic, "and exam.nat.on ol w n

Ihe Gospels shows immediately that it was the language em- ter adhered

ployed" (106). The main point to be discussed here is not so Gerard Mussies

much this scholarly position or the likelihood of his assumpti-
°ns (W. G. Kümmel, though, assumed for none of the gospels a
Palestinian origin). but rather if this item is representative ot ms

specific opinion about NT Greek. As a matter of fact this rather Swid,e|% Leonard: i)er umstrittene Jesus. Aus dem Amerik.
Polemical article leans so heavily on his earlier work. especially ^ L Swidler ßearb. u. leicht gekürzte Ausgabe. Stuttgart:
°n "Our Translated Gospels" (1936). that he omits to demon- l99] ,4, s. 8o. Kart. DM 24.80. ISBN 3-7918-1418-4.

»rate, the number of NT passages of which the linguistic character
is actually discussed amounting to three only (Mt 3,11, ^ yf jn den USA bekannt geworden durch sein 1969
Lk 3.23; Acts 11,2; the first even without reference, the third erschienenes Bucn -Rdigions Freedom and Religions Dialo-
»ithout any explanation). This article, therefore, does not at all _ ^ liberalen Flügel des amerikanischen Prote-

illustrate the extensive work that he has done on tne^eim'tlc stantismus. Sein eigentliches Anliegen wird aus dem Originalti-
hackground of NT Greek, and cannot be considered to be das- „Jeshua A Mode| for Modems" deutlicher als in der etwas
S|c" in any respect. It would have been much better if some por- farblosen Firmicrung der deutschen Ausgabe,
tion ofthat book had been inserted instead. Die fur ejne größere Öffentlichkeit bestimmten Ausführun-

The same criticism holds good of the next choice, M. Black s Brennpunkte die ^ den ^iden ersten Kapi-

'Aramaic Studies and the Language of Jesus" (from In Memo- tdüberscnriften erkennbar werden: Jesus ist der Maßstab des-
r>am P. Kahle. 1968). Black, too. has done a lot to explain tne ^ ^ hejßt christ,jch zu sein" (i i) und jesus und seine

hnguistic character of gospels and Acts, but that is not brougnt An^än waren keine Christen - sie waren Juden." (48) Die
out by this specific article of his which focuses on the question Einbettung yon Gestait Und Verkündigung Jesu in das zeitge-
°f which variety of Aramaic now known to us is identical witn nössjsche Judentum jst im Laufe des letzten Jh.s zum Gemein-
or comes closest to the Aramaic spoken in Palestine in the tirs gut historischer Arbeit am Neuen Testament geworden und
Century A.D., and discusses precisely only one NT word, rar»- jnnerhaib der jüdischen Forschung mit ihren mannigfa-

P°"ni. Of course, the answer to this question is very 'mP"r,a"'; chen versuchen, Jesus als Erscheinung der jüdischen Glaubens-
h"t as such preliminary to the study of the Greek ot John the hichle m ^greifen, nicht ohne Widerhall geblieben. Swid-
Baptisfs or Jesus- sayings. In fact the bulk of this article is ^ position wenn er Jesus mjt £ p Sanders

word for word identical with one of the iBtroductory chapters 0 ^ Q Vemes einer charismatischen Bewegung im Judentum
n's "Aramaic Approach " (3rd ed.), entitled "Recent Diseover- und ajs wandernden. Wunder vollbringenden Lehrer

'es and Developments in Palestinian Aramaic" (35-49). w a (Proto.Rabbinen) und galiläischen Chasid beschreibt. Darüber
^ey said there. however. about Cod. Neofiti I. quoting extensi- folg1 er einer VOr allem im jüdischen Raum beliebten

e'y from a letter of P. Kahle, has now been replaced by two _ . nr wem) er den Gegensatz zum Pharisäismus deutlich
hon sectlons on the Targum of Job and the Aramaic Enoch zurückmmmt

f'-u-122). but the whole rest (39-49) is the same. be it in a uu ^ christologie die er vom Selbstverständnis Jesu scharf
rent order (now 119-121; 123; 114-119. 123-125). Here ^ jhre Wurzein jn einem Mißverständnis der nach-

?ain. ,t would have been more appropriate to repnnt anotne österlichen Anhängerschaft. ..Für Christen wäre es besser, nicht
'on of his Approach to show his actual handwork. ^ behaupten: Jesus, gekreuzigt und auferstanden, ist der Me-

• A. Fitzmyer's wellknown and excellent !^eJ 0' shiah sondern zu sagen: Er ist auf irgendeine Weise (sie!) der
■-anguages of Palestine in the First Century AD (21979) ■