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Kilpatrick, George Dunbar
Theologische Literaturzeitung 10°. Jahrgang 1984 Nr. 4
Stelle sind die VIT gar nicht eingegangen, 1,19 diskutieren sie es und
vermögen die geläufige Deutung nicht zu entkräften.
Trotz dieser kritischen Anfrage sei abschließend nachdrücklich betont
: Es ist den Verfassern gelungen, den zur Zeit informativsten und
anregendsten Kommentar zu 2Pt und Jud vorzulegen.
Münster Martin Rese
' Die neueste stammt von T. Fornberg: An Early Church in a Pluralistic Society
. A Study of 2 Peter. Lund: Gleerup 1977. Vgl. die Rezensionen von
B. Pearson, JBL 97, J978,602-604; Chr. WollT,ThLZ 105,1980 Sp. 841 f.
2 So E. Käsemann, Paulus und der Frühkatholizismus (1963), in: Ders., Exegetische
Versuche und Besinnungen. Zweiter Band, Göttingen 1964, 239-252,
240; Ders., Eine Apologie der urchristlichen Eschatologie (1952), Ex. Vers. u.
Bes. I, Göttingen 1960,135-157, 135.
Adrados, F. R., E. Gangutia, J. Lopez Facal, C. Serrano Aybar,
P. Badenas: Dictionario Griego-Espanol. Vol 1: a - dXXd. Madrid:
Instituto „Antonio de Nebrija" Consejo Supcrior de Invesitgaciones
Cientificas(ANCSIC) 1980.CXLIX, 155 S.
Adrados, F. R., E. Gangutia, J. Lopez Facal, C. Serrano Aybar: Intro-
dueeiön a la Lexicografia Griega. Madrid: ANCSIC 1977. X,
These two books introduce us to an important undertaking for clas-
sical, Biblical and patristic Greek. The first item is the first fascicle of
the dictionary (= DGE), pp. 1-155, preceded by an introduetion with
lists, of almost equivalent length. The introduetion presents the prede-
cessors and purpose of the dictionary, the history of the project, the
authors and texts used in DGE, the preliminary undertakings, the con-
struetion of the articles and the preparations for printing. Collabora-
tors are named and acknowledgements made. This introduetion is fol-
lowed by various lists (I) ofauthors and works cited, (II) of papyri and
ostraca, (III) of inscriptions, (IV) of abbreviations and (V) of Symbols
used in DGE.
Professor Adrados was the initiator of DGE. Its inauguration goes
back to 1961. From 1962 he has recruited a great number of collabo-
rators and grants and subventions without which the undertaking
would have been impossible.
Though the use of various works such as the Lexicon of Liddell-
Scott-Jones (LSJ) is fully acknowledged, it is clear that DGE is an
independent work of real substance. Anyone who has the opportunity
of visi ting the work-rooms for DGE at the Instituto "Antonio de Nebrija
" cannot but be impressed by the evidence of original research.
DGE may be comparable to LSJ, for example, but it has distinc-
tive features. In principle it presents Greek from Homer to A. D. 600
but oversteps these limits in two directions.
First, Mycenean Greek is not included. It is planned that a separate
Mycenean Dictionary will becompiled which will look afterthis stage
of the language as a whole, but references to Mycenean Greek are
included where they are relevant to the articles in DGE.
Secondly, we find references to texts written after A. D. 600 where
they are concerned with the older language. Thus Eustathius of Thes-
salonica of the twelfth Century wrote commentaries on Homer which
contain older material. There are also the dictionaries and encyclope-
dias of the middle ages which are quoted for the same reason. We must
regret in the connexion that the complete lexicon of Photius remains
unpublished, a handicap under which all Greek lexicographers
labour. The responsibility for the delay in the publication of this lexicon
does not, of course, rest with DGE.
In another direction also it is important to notice the inclusiveness
of DGE. If we may refer to LSJ, we find that Greek patristic material is
there excluded because it is provided for in Lampe's Lexicon of Patristic
Greek. As is pointed out in the introduetion to DGE, such a
distinetion can lead to a Separation of the works of the same author.
For instance, Nonnus' para*phrase of the Gospfel of John would fall
into the patristic area, but his Dionysiaca would not. In thissense we
may regard DGE as having the whole of Greek to A. D. 600 as its pro-
The same inclusiveness shows itself in the treatment of the Greek
Bible and related texts. We may have the impression that LSJ treats
the vocabulary of these texts in a stepmotherly or less generous way,
anda Lexicon of Biblical Greek, Standing between LSJ and Lampe has
been planned to fill the gap between the two. In DGE proportionale
space has been given to Biblical Greek and, while we may think that
the distinetive vocabulary of these texts requires distinetive treatment,
we must recognize that in DGE particular pains have been taken to see
that ihese texts are adequately presented.
The articles seem to be soundly construeted. For example in this
volume we are given the evidence for the earliest appearances of dyant]
and dydntjmc,. We may be concerned with two questions: (a) why was
the verb dyandv used so long without a corresponding noun and (b)
why and how did the two nouns come into being? how far were they
pagan and how far Biblical? DGE rightly does not answer these
questions for us, but it does provide important material for a Solution
Likewise with äyyzkoc, we are given clear evidence of the Biblical
and Christian usage, but while DGE recognrzes the difficulty of distin-
guishing between older and Biblical usage, it gives us evidence
whereby we can judge forourselves.
The Introducciön takes up some of the problems which show them-
selves in the carrying out of this enterprise. It gives the historical foun-
dations for Greek lexicography, treating of semantic theories in anti-
quity, of the history of Greek lexicography in ancient and medieval as
well as modern times.
Next we have a panorama of Greek dictionaries and of their practi-
cal problems, for example, the dictionaries of particular authors, of
the papyri, of inscriptions and dialects, Mycenean lexicography,
etymology, Computers and indexes, various problems (spelling, gram-
Finally F. R. Adrados presents two articles on the new semantics
and the making of a Greek dictionary: problems of general linguistics
in relation to lexicography as applied to Greek in particular; criteria
to follow in the Organization of dictionary articles. Both discussions
are relevant to the problems of Biblical and patristic Greek.
In this Introducciön much more is relevant. For example, E. Gangutia
in her article Teorias semanticas en la Antigüedad has an
important section on "Las ideas sobre el significado en la patristica
greco-latina y epoca tardia" (53-60) and C. Serrano provides a clear
and readable guide to the wilderness of ancient Greek lexicography, so
pertinent to the study of the vocabulary of the Greek Bible.
F. R. Adrados has furnished other helpful studies and J. L. Facal's
contributions especially on Computers and the like should not be
neglected. We may in this connexion remark on B. Fischer's concor-
dance to the Latin Bible to whose making the Computers significantly
The Introducciön retains its importance despite the introduetory
matter of DGE. It explores several themes beyond what was possible
in DGE, though such exploration was desirable and, as we have seen,
useful to Biblical and theological studies.
It is natural for the Student, even when he is presented with such a
wealth of material, to ask for more. For example I have not been able
to find in DGE a reference to the revised Supplement of 1968 to LSJ,
though it is quite clear that DGE has included all supplementary
material to 1976. Again it might be useful, though it is unnecessary,
to include a brief list of the principal modern scolarly works used in
These are small matters and in no way obscure the solid virtues of
DGE. It seems to provide a well-balanced lexicon to classical Greek,
and this well-balanced treatment has meant a much more adequate
presentation of Biblical and patristic Greek than we have had hitherto,
despite the excellencies of Bauer and Lampe.