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Neues Testament


Künzel, Georg


Studien zum Gemeindeverständnis des Matthäus-Evangeliums 1981


Delling, Gerhard

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Theologische Literaturzeitung 106. Jahrgang 1981 Nr. 5


ted subsequently into Greek for the benefit of Hellenistic Christians,
this material became our four traditional Gospels.

The argument depends very considerably upon identification of in-
stances of misunderstanding or mistranslation of a possible Aramaic
(or 'proto-Syriac') original. These are reflected in the text as difficul-
ties of sense, textual variants, and certain seemingly inexplicable dif-
ferences in wording between otherwise closely parallel passages in the
Gospels. Again, attention is drawn to other features, such as ele-
ments of style and language which are not only either foreign to
Greek or at least relatively rare in it, but also natural, indeed idioma-
tic, in Aramaic. We thus find examples of the ethic dative, the parti-
ciple as a tense, the redundant use of the verb 'to begin' followed by
an infinitive, and employment of the conjunctions hoti and hina whe-
re one might have more naturally expected a relative pronoun. The
presence of word-plays in some of the proposed Aramaic reconstruc-
tions is adduced as further support for the thesis. Essentially Zimmermann
sets out from the view that the earlier work of J. Wellhausen, C.
F. Burney, J. A. Montgomery, Matthew Black and, above all, C. C.
Torrey, has made the assumption of an Aramaic document or docu-
ments behind the Gospels a reasonable working hypothesis. His aim,
then, in the book under discussion is to find further confirmation for
this theory. He is thus less concerned to demonstrate the possibility of
an Aramaic substratum to the Gospels than to find proof that such an
hypothesis makes sense of the facts.

Some of his exemples are quite ingenious and seem rather persua-
sive. Thus, Matt. 24,9par. has 'the powers of the heavens will be sha-
ken . ..' Now if this text were originally in Aramaic, the word transla-
ted''powers' would probably have been hailayya; but the same conso-
nantal text might equally well have been rendered 'host(s)', i. e., 'the
host of heaven' (174). This would suit the context admirably. Zimmermann
seems not to have noticed that in Isa. 34,4, which is often
seen as reflected in these words in Matt. 24,9, the Targum has the
very phrase haile s'mayya, 'the host of heaven'. In Luke 16,3 the L)n-
just Steward says, 'I am not able to dig, I am ashamed to beg'. How-
ever, both 'to be ashamed' and 'to dig' may be derived from a root hpr
in Aramaic. If so, an Aramaic original of the story may thus have had
a pun on these words (125). Other cases might also be cited. However,
even if Zimmermann should be right in tracing their origin to some
kind of confusion or mistranslation of an Aramaic original, that
would not require us to posit translation of a document or docu-
ments. It would be equally consistent with a theory of oral transmis-
sion of the Jesus-material concerned. It is nevertheless interesting that
some 4 of the strongest of his cases seem to be located in the Lukan
Special Material, viz., Luke 11, 18; 16, 3.6; and 22, 37. In a number
of other instances, however, the Solution proposed seems to create
more problems than it solves.

Identification of the type of Aramaic involved as 'proto-Syriac'
with an admixture of Galilean, Judaean, Babylonian and other ele-
ments seems merely to reflect the fact that in the Solutions offered, all
of these dialects are drawn upon to some extent. Yet it is Strange that
there is no note of the pioneering work of F. H. Chase on the role of
Syriac in the transmission of the Gospels. Likewise, while the Bar-
Kokhba letters are mentioned, there is not a word about the Aramaic
texts from Qumran, Codex Neofiti, or even the Cairo Geniza targum
fragments. Again, although Wellhausen, Torrey, Harris, Burney,
Montgomery, Black (and the reviewer) are mentioned, a host of other
scholars in the field are simply absent. Why did Zimmermann discuss
the 'qorban' passages and the Lukan hymns without referring to Joseph
A. Fitzmyer and Paul Winter?

Two other general criticisms should be made. First, the textual evi-
dence seems to be treated more as a quarry for possible Aramaisms
than as a basis for establishing the NT text. Moreover, some referen-
ces to it are rather unusual. Thus, in Matt. 18, 24 a variant reading
(pollon) is given as found in 'Von Soden's edition of the NT, II, v. 24
in the apparatus, p. 67' (34). Secondly, there is a tendency at times to
take for granted matters which have for long been disputed. An exam-

ple of this is the reference to Luke, who 'as a physician, undoubtedly
was a man of reputation and Standing in the Community .. •' (W
Another smaller point is the consistent reference to the Book of Reve-
lation as 'Revelations'; 'O. S. Manson' (168 & Index) should be 'O. S.

It is good, however, to have another book on the question of Aramaic
(and Hebrew) sources for the Gospels. The case is notoriously
hard to prove, but Zimmermann has done us a Service by restating the
more thoroughgoing form of it and in the process bringing to our
attention a number of possible indications of Aramaic origin.

Bangor, Wales Max Wilcox

Künzel, Georg: Studien zum Gemeindeverständnis des Matthäus-
Evangeliums. Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag 1978. 295 S. 8° = Calwer
Theologische Monographien. Reihe A: Bibelwissenschaft, 10-
Kart. DM 46,-.

Den im Titel der Erlanger Dissertation (Autorreferat ThLZ 102.
1977 Sp. 851-853) zunächst angedeuteten Themenbereich, der in
Kap. 3-5 auf noch nicht hundert Seiten abgehandelt wird, stellt K. in
ein „weitgespannte(s) Bezugsfeld" (5) hinein. Da er „das Geschichtsverständnis
des" Mtev „als Rahmen für das matthäische Gemeindeverständnis
aufzeigen will" (5), wird (nach einem Überblick über die
Auslegungsgeschichte [11-41]) in Kap. 1 zunächst „Der geschichts-
theologische Aspekt der mt Theologie" umrissen (45-70), und zwar
an Hand der mit dikaiosyne, dikaios und pleroö gebildeten Aussagen.
Dikaiosyne bezieht sich Mt 5,6; 6,33 auf Gottes Wirken (47) wie
21,32 auf den „Vollzug des Heilsgeschehens" (52), vgl. 3,15.

Der „geschichtstheologische Aspekt" bewährt sich in Kap. 2.
„Jesusgeschehen als Gottesgeschichte", dem nicht nur umfänglichsten
(71-120), sondern m. E. auch gewichtigsten des Buches. Hier
werden für K. entscheidende Linien der Christologie des Mtev aufgewiesen
und in der Tat Maßstäbe für die folgende Beurteilung des
Gemeindeverständnisses im Mtev gesetzt. Das Thema des Kap. 2
wird insbesondere in A in einem „Aufriß des Jesusgeschehens im
Mt-ev" ausgeführt (72-112). Daraus einige Stichwörter: Immanuel
(„der Heilsname, der die Gegenwart Gottes [in Jesus] beglaubigt,
bestimmt den Rang" alles in Mt 2-28 Gesagten [73], bis hin zu 28,20:
„mit euch .. ." [110]); Davidssohn (der D. wird als der Barmherzige
kenntlich); Weisheitslogien (die nicht zuletzt die Ablehnung Jesu
deutlich werden lassen - als dem Willen Gottes entsprechend); Passion
; Mt-Schluß. 2 B weist „Hoheit und Niedrigkeit in der Christologie
des Mt-ev" auf(l 12-120).

„Das Selbstverständnis der Gemeinde" nach Mt zeichnet K. in
Kap. 3 nach (121-166). Sie lebt von der Offenbarung im Jesusgeschehen
her auf das Gericht zu; ^,ihr Dienst in der Welt dient der Verherrlichung
des Vaters" (139). Die „Verstehenden" sind im Mtev die die
Gemeinde abbildenden Jünger als die, die das Wort vom Reich
annehmen (141). „Nachfolge, Leidensbereitschaft und Gehorsam
kennzeichnen das Bild des Jüngers" schlechthin (149). - Spezielle
„Funktionen in der Gemeinde" (Kap. 4) üben Propheten und Schriftgelehrte
aus (167-179). - In Kap. 5, „Petrus und die Vollmacht der
Gemeinde" (180-217), werden „Wirkungsformen der Gemeinde"
(180) an den Petrustexten vorgeführt. Aussagen über Petrus' Glauben
, Bekennen, Kleinglauben, Versagen erhalten „ eine seelsorgerlich
relevante Modell-Funktion" (193). Mt 16,19 zeigt den „Ursprung der
von der Gemeinde geübten Entscheidungsgewalt" (199). Weiter ist in
5 von der Vollmacht der Vergebung, des charismatischen Handelns,
der Mission die Rede.

In Kap. 6 schließlich tritt noch einmal speziell der geschichtstheologische
Aspekt in den Blick mit dem teilweisen Abschreiten des
Wortfeldes telos (218-250), in dem sich „geschichtstheologische und
eschatologische, christologische und ekklesiologische" Grundlinien
der Theologie des Mt vereinigen (219). Die „Zusammenfassung"