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Altes Testament


Kutsch, Ernst


Verheissung und Gesetz 1979


Bernhardt, Waltraut

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Theologische Literalurzeitung 104. Jahrgang 1979 Nr. 8


fication is the great merit of this book. Most of the pages of
this work are consacrated to reproduetion in füll of the texts
and marginal glosses for all verses with undoubted multiple
marginal Variants (p. 12). Chapter I (pp. 1-13) is an Intro-
duetion dealing with the definition of Targum Jerushalmi and
with a short and accurate survey of the History of Targumic
Research in Palestinian Aramaic in Nineteenth and Early Twen-
tieth Century, since the discovery of Targumic Geniza Fragments
, Codex Neofiti 1 and Job and Leviticus Targums of
Qumran. In this survey we miss three important contributions,
two in Hebrew and one in English: Menahem Kasher, Targu-
mei ha-Torah (Torah Shelemah, vol XXIV, Jerusalem 1974,
280 pägs.), a volume entirely devoted to the examination of
Pentateuch Targumim and their bearing to Rabbinic sources;
and A. Tal, The Language ot the Targum ot the Former
Prophets and its Position within the Aramaic Dialects, Tel-
Aviv 1975, 235 pags., a book in Hebrew, which centers in the
study of Former Prophets (and Onqelos) language and its
relationship with the Aramaic Dialects, especially that of the
Palestinian Targumim. A third important study, this one in
English, is M. L. Klein article, „The Extant Sources of the
Fragmentary Targum to the Pentateuch", HUCA 45 (1975),
pp. 115-137.

Chapter II (pp. 14-19) attempts to classify the Ni Margi-
nalia in two different textual types: Type I includes those
marginal glosses which exhibit a close relationship with the
so-called Fragmentary Targum: "By the method of comparison
of texts, then, we found one set of Variants which appears
to be homogeneous and continuous and to be collations from a
TJ II (Jerushalmi Targum) text heretofore unknown, similar
to Fragmentary Targum and Geniza Fragments E and F (of
P. Kahle's Masoreten des Westens), and recoverable to a
significant degree by Substitution of these Ni Marginalia for
a Ni text" (p. 18).

The majority of verses in Ni have but one variant reading
and the evidence is rather impressive that these Marginalia
stem from a common textual tradition (Type I); but when
"there are two (rarely three) variant readings, one set bclongs
to type I, and the other set approximates the text of Targum
Pseudojonathan although the correlation is by no means as
close as that of Type I and TJ II texts" (p. 18). This second
set of Variants constitutes Type II. Three Appendices (pp. 21
to 59) assemble Ni texts and Marginalia and parallel texts of
Fragmentary Targums and/or Pseudojonathan to provide evidence
for the two afore mentioned text Types.

Chapter III (pp. 60-68) tries to delineate the linguistic pro-
files of both textual types, I and II, of Ni variant readings.
The result of this chapter is that one can tabulate a number
of words running throughout the Marginalia with a high degree
of consistency precisely in texts of Type I. "This profile al-
lies the Type I Marginalia linguistically as well as textually
with Fragmentary Targums and with Geniza Targum Fragments
E and F" (p. 66). Let us take one example: Of 135 in-
stances in Genesis where the Ni text translates Yhtuh with yyc
(Adonay) alone, the margin as Memereh dyyc (the word of
the Lord) or slight variations of this, eighty-eight times. This
variant reading is common usage in the Fragmentary Targum
of the Geniza of Cairo. It is a linguistic feature of Type I.

The linguistic peculiarities of Type II material show a strik-
ing agreement with the language of Pseudojonathan against
both Onqelos and Fragmentary Targums (TJ II). The texts sur-
veyed, however, "certainly cannot be identified simply as
selections from the Pseudojonathan version known to us. Many
of the readings diverge from those of Pseudojonathan" (p. 68).
"Perhaps the most accurate linguistic Classification for Type II
texts would be as additional material belonging to a Pseudojonathan
group (p. 68) so far known only in two sources"
(ms. Brit. Mus. Or. 27031 and Pseudojonathan editio prineeps).

Chapter IV (pp. 72-80) is a study of the different recensions
that can be detected within the text of Ni, namely, in Gen 1,
1-3, 4 and Deut 29, 17 (18)-34, 12. The authors convincingly
posit that Ni Gen 1, 1-20 and Gen 1, 24-2, 5a exhibit two different
recensions; Ni Gen 2, 5b-3, 4 translation seems to be a

linguistic aecomodation to the Hebrew Massoretic Text. Si-
milarly Deut 29, 17 (18)-33, 29 exhibit scveral versions rather
than one; their Marginalia show no strong correlation with
the marginalia of Type I of Ni; Deut 24, 1-12 text exhibits a
recension very similar to Type I of Ni glosses. In conclusion,
we have, besides the Single basic recension which constitutes
the greater part of Ni, four or five recensions located in the
text of the first and last chapters of codex Ni.

The Vth and last chapter (pp. 81-163) is the transcription (pp.
83-117) and translation (pp. 118-163) of Ni text together with
the two or three sets of variant readings which might aecom-
pany it: first, the texts with two sets of Variants dissimilar
(pp. 83-100) (some of Type I, other of Type II), or similar
(pp. 100-105), many of them of Type I; next, texts of Ni with
two sets of unclassiüed Variants (pp. 105-109) and Ni texts
with Variants marked with the siglum seter aher (another
ms.); finally, texts with three sets of unclassified Variants (pp.
112-117). The main purpose of such an edition of text and
aecompanying glosses is to offer the working material for
further study and Classification of the Marginalia.

The book is of great interest for Targum scholars and has
bearing on textual and linguistic matters, and helps to relate
the different Targums; indirectely has theological import: We
know, for instance, that "the word of the Lord" (Memera,
logos) was a continuous rendition of the Tetragrammaton in
a recension of the Palestinian Targum, as it is the case in the
first chapter of Ni. We are indebted to the authors for this
finc piece of work. Further research in this line will be easicr
when all the Palestinian Targum materials be published ac-
cording to the textual families and in parallels columns, with
critical apparatuses, as we have started to do with the Book
of Numbers in the Polyglotta Matritensia.

Madrid Alcjandro Diez-Macho

Kutsch, Ernst: Verheißung und Gesetz. Untersuchungen zum
sogenannten „Bund" im Alten Testament. Berlin - New York:
de Gruytcr 1973. XII, 230 S. gr. 8° = Beiheft zur Zeitschrift
für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, 131. Lw. DM 98,-.

Vf. hat sich in den Jahren 1967-1972 in einer Reihe von
Aufsätzen zum Thema b*xit um eine Neubestimmung des theologisch
stark belasteten Begriffs bemüht: (1) Gesetz und Gnade
. ZAW 79, 1967, 18-35; (2) Der Begriff b'rit in vordeutero-
nomischer Zeit. FS Rost, BZAW 105, 1967, 133-43; (3) Von
b*rit zu „Bund". KuD 14, 1968, 159-82; (4) Sehen und Bestimmen
. FS Galling, 1970, 165-78; (5) „Bund" und Fest. ThQ 150,
1970, 299-320; (6) karat b'rit „eine Verpflichtung festsetzen".
FS Elliger, AOAT 18, 1972, 121-28.

Diese Einzeluntersuchungcn wurden - teils überarbeitet,
teils erweitert - in dem vorliegenden Sammelband zusammengefaßt
und in folgende Kapitel gegliedert: I. Die Bedeutung
von b'rit (1-27); II. Sehen und Bestimmen. Die Etymologie
von b'rit (28-39); III. karat b'rit „eine Verpflichtung festsetzen
" (40-50); IV. Der Begriff b'rit in vordeuteronomischer
Zeit (51-92); V. Verheißung und Gesetz - Zuspruch und Anspruch
(93-152); VI. „Bund" und Fest. Zu Gegenstand und
Terminologie einer Forschungsrichtung (153-73); VII. Von
b'rit zu „Bund" (174-206). Ein Stellenregister biblischer und
außcrbiblischer Texte (207-30) schließt das Buch ab. Bei der
Zusammenstellung des Werkes verfuhr Vf. so, daß er die ersten
beiden Aufsätze (1) und (2) vollständig neu gefaßt in die
Kapitel I, IV und V einarbeitete, während die übrigen vier
Beiträge, fast unverändert oder nur geringfügig überarbeitet,
die restlichen Kapitel ergaben: (4) unter Wcglassung des 2.
Teiles = Kap. II; (6) - Kap. III; (5) = Kap. VI und (3)
Kap. VII, das im 3. Teil stärker erweitert wurde.

In Kap. I wird zunächst erarbeitet, daß die Grundbedeutung
von bert nicht „Bund", sondern „Bestimmung, Verpflichtung"
ist, u. zw. in vierfacher Form: 1. Verpflichtung, die einer selbst
übernimmt, oder Zusage, die er gibt; 2. Verpflichtung, die er
einem anderen auferlegt j 3. wechselseitige Verpflichtung zweier