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Theologische Litcraturzeitung 93. Jahrgang 1968 Nr. 7


rück. Das zeigen die Begründungen auch in ihrem Inhalt. Dazu
kommt die theologische Terminologie, die sich allmählich dabei
ausbildet. Mit all dem ist die Weisheit in den israelischen Schulen
gewiß sehr verwandt und mit eingcflochten in die Weisheit
der angrenzenden Kulturen. In Israel aber bewährt sich die Weisheitsschule
in der Höhe des dort geprägten Ethos, das mehr verlangt
als das Gesetz, nämlich den Verzicht auf die eigene stärkere
Position zugunsten des sozial Schwächeren.

Ansatz und Ausführung der Arbeit von W. Richter ist andersartig
als bei der zuerst behandelten von H. H. Schmid. Aber gerade
die Spannung in Methode und Charakter der beiden Untersuchungen
dürfte die Problematik des ganzen von so verschiedenen
Seiten angegangenen Fragenkomplexes besonders deutlich
machen, zumal hier wie dort wertvolle Ergebnisse erarbeitet worden
sind. Das dürfte für die Fortführung der Forschung auf diesem
Gebiet von besonderer Fruchtbarkeit sein.

Es sei deshalb auch erlaubt, auf eine dritte Arbeit zu dem
Gesamtthema der Weisheit hinzuweisen, die demnächst von mir in
dieser Zeitschrift besprochen werden soll: Christa Kayatz, Studien
zu Proverbien 1-9. Eine form- und motivgeschichtliche Untersuchung
unter Einbeziehung ägyptischen Vergleichsmaterials
(1966). Alle drei Arbeiten des Jahres 1966 bieten mit ihren Ergebnissen
eine feste Grundlage und mannigfache Ansatzpunkte
und Anregungen für alle, die hier oder an verwandten Problemen
weiterzuarbeiten gedenken.

Gießen Georg Bertram

J a m e s , E. O.: The Tree of Life. An Archaeological Study. Leiden:
Brill 1966. XVIII, 293 S. gr. 8° = Studies in the History of
Religions (Supplements to Numcn), XI. Lw. hfl. 45,-.

Beautifully produced, but unfortunately very insufficiently
proof-read and therefore swarming with printing errors, this work
by the emeritus-professor of history of religion of London Uni-
versity, now chaplain of all Saints College, Oxford, presents a
study of the phenomenon of what is called by him "the tree of
life" from the Standpoint of the historian of religions. It does
not confine itself to the tree as Symbol of the secret of life only,
^ut deals with a great many other natural phenomena and reli-
9ious ideas more or less loosely connected with it. In the first
chapter the relation between the sacred tree and the water of
üfe is exhaustively treated; in the second the author defends the
'hesis that the wooden pole developed into the stone pillar and
'hat such a pillar and eventually all kind of stones stood for the
same chain of ideas; from there he goes over to a discussion
°f the coneeption of paradise as the divine garden (ch. III) and
to the relation between the idea of sacral kingship and tree-cult
(ch. IV). In the next chapter he deals with the cosmic tree as
Principle of creation and finds so a transition to ch. VI which
'reats "the female principle" as embodied in the numerous
female deities of antiquity. Lastly he describes the relation between
the tree of life and the cult of the dead, winding up with a
recuperation on "the theme of the tree of life" (ch. VIII). This
Is typical a work in the grand style of a former generation as
represented espccially by a scholar like Frazer, though aecording
to the author in his preface the "Golden Bough eventually became
rather lost in the jungle of luxuriant growth in which it was
entangled". The reader of Prof. James sometimes gets the feeling
that the "tree of life" suffers the same fate: so much is brought
jn connection with it that one risks to forget that the expression
the tree of life" does not occur anywhere eise than in seven
toxts of the O. T. and in litcrature dependent on the Hebrew
canon. One would expect to find a careful exegesis not only of
the relevant passages in Genesis 2 and 3, but also of the five
toxts from Proverbs where the "tree of life" is used as a simile.
In view of the fact that wooden pole and stone pillar occurred
alongside each other in the Palestine sanetuaries one should
hesitatc to explain the one as the produet of the evolution of
'he other; as Hebrew uses for "supporting pillar" another word
Uian massebä ("standing stone, stele") one should not hurry to
Jdentify both with each other; nor is it evident at all that the
'dea of the cosmic tree as represented by Yggdrasil in Germanic
mythology has anything to do with the Biblical tree of life, or
'his last one with the Babylonian plant "as an old man one

becomes young again". So the real yield of this study for O. T.
science is not so rieh as one might expect. On the other hand
one cannot have but the deepest respect for the wide knowledge
of the author whose horizon Stretches from India to prehistoric
Spain and from Iceland to Egypt with occasional excursions to
China and the Pacific, and who embraces all ages from the
Sumcrian period tili present-day folkloristic England. Widely
divergeant literature has been made accessible by this study.
Though the present reviewer would hesitate to aeeept the author's
ideas about historic influenecs (e. g. that the cult of Osiris ori-
ginated from Byblos and went over on the one hand to Egypt,
on the other to Assyria) he must confess that he has learned a
great many interesting facts from this study.

Pretoria A. van Selms

Besters, Andre: L'expression „Fils d'Israel" en Ex., I-XIV.
Un nouveau critere pour la distinetion des sources (RB 46, 1967,
S. 321-355).

Blythin, Islwyn: The Patriarchs and the Promise (SJTh 21,
1968, S. 56-73).

Burchard, Christoph: Solin et les Esseniens. Remarques ä

propos d'une source negligee (RB 46, 1967, S. 392-407).
Caloz, Masseo: Exode, XIII, 3-16 et son rapport au Deutero-

nome (Planches I-II) (RB 65, 1968, S. 5-62).
Couroyer, B.: Le temple de Yaho et l'orientation dans les

papyrus arameens d'Elephantine (RB 65, 1968, S. 80-85).
Delcor, Mathias: Rapas cultuels esseniens et therapeutes.

Thiases et Haburoth (Revue de Qumran 6, 1968, S. 401-425).
fiphrem de Nisibe: Hymnes sur le paradis. Traduction

du Syriaque par R. Lavenant, Introduction et notes par F. Graf-

fin. Paris: Les Editions du Cerf 1968. 209 S. 8° = Sources

Chretiennes, 137. ffr. 25,-.
Fischer, Hans: Die Kirchen und der Knecht Gottes (JK 29,

1968, S. 201-204).
F o h r e r, Georg: Hin zu den Quellen (ZAW 78, 1966, S. 225-229).
G a s t e r , Theodor H.: Two Textual Emendations: Numbers XXIV.

8. Zephaniah III. 17 (ET 78, 1967, S. 267).
Haas, N., and H. Nathan: Anthropological Survey on the

human Sceletal Remains from Qumran (Revue de Qumran 6,

1968, S. 345-352).
Hoffmann, Hans Werner: Kritische Anmerkungen zu einer

neuen mathematischen Methode der Textscheidung (ZAW 78,

1966, S. 219-224).
Hyatt, J. Philip: The Beginning of Jeremiah's Prophecy (ZAW

78, 1966, S. 204-214).
Jefferson, Helen G.: The Shapira Manuscript and the Qumran
Scrolls (Revue de Qumran 6, 1968, S. 391-399).
Kilpatrick, G. D.: Ps 90, 1-4 (LXX) (ZAW 78, 1966, S. 224).
Knight, George A. F.: New Perspectives in Old Testament

Interpretation (The Bible Translator 19, 1968, S. 50-58).
Martin-Achard, Robert: La signification de l'alliancc dans

l'Ancien Testament (RThPh 100, 1968, S. 88-102).
Morris, P. M. K., and Edward James i Computers and the

Old Testament: A Progress Report (ET 79, 1968, S. 211-214).
Negoitsa, Athanase: L'Ancien Testament dans le culte de

l'Eglise orthodoxe (RHPhR 47, 1967, S. 347-354).
Philonenko, Marc: David-Orphee sur une mosaique de Gaza

(RHPhR 47, 1967, S. 355-357).
Van der Ploeg, J.: Fragments d'un manuscrit de Psaumes

de Qumran (HQPsb) (Planche XVIII) (RB 46, 1967, S. 408-412).
Pribnow, Hans: Umkehr - Rückkehr - Heimkehr. Eine biblische
Zeitbetrachtung (Sacharja 1, 3) (Freies Christentum 20, 1968,
Sp. 33-36).

Rabinowitz, Isaac: The Meaning and Date of 'Damascus'
Document IX, 1 (Revue de Qumran 6, 1968, S. 433-435).

Raeder, Siegfried: Die Josephsgeschichte im Koran und im
Alten Testament (EvTh 26, 1966, S. 169-190).

Ringgren, Helmer, Weiser, Artur, u. Walther Zimmcrli:
Sprüche, Prediger, Das Hohe Lied, Klagelieder, Das Buch Esther,
übers, u. erklärt. Berlin: Evang. Verlagsanstalt (Lizenzausgabe
d. Verlages Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen) [1968]. IV,
404 S. gr. 8° = Das Alte Testament Deutsch. Neues Göttinger
Bibelwerk, hrsg. v. A. Weiser, 16.
(s. Bespr. in ThLZ 91, 1966, Sp. 738)

Russell, S. H.: Calvin and the Messinic Interpretation of the
Psalms (SJTh 21, 1968, S. 37 - 47).

Sanders, Parish Ed.: Chiasmus and the Translation of I Q
Hodayot VII, 26-27 (Revue de Qumran 6, 1968, S. 427-431).